Groepterapie as ortopedagogiese hulpverleningsmetode aan verstandelik gestremde, gedragsgeremde dogters in 'n kliniekskool
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Observation of mentally handicapped, behaviour disordered adolescent girls in a clinic school indicates that they find it difficult to communicate, even with their peers. This phenomenon may be ascribed to mainly three factors: * Emotional disturbance and behaviour disorders, caused by disharmonious relationships and communication in the primary educational situation; * a milieu-deprived home, in which they have not learnt the values of proper interpersonal interaction and communication; * mental handicap, which often implies poor understanding of social situations and interpersonal behaviour. The poor language ability of the mentally handicapped further impedes their ability to communicate. Mentally handicapped behaviour disordered children are placed in a clinic school, where they receive pedotherapy. The aim of pedotherapy is to restore children's communication with their life-world and to improve their interpersonal relationships. This research deals with the question whether group therapy can be applied as a method of orthopedagogical aid in order to help mentally handicapped, behaviour disordered adolescent girls in a clinic school to improve their communication with their peers. The first step towards answering this question was to study some of the research done on group therapy with relevant groups. This study indicated that there is a fairly strong possibility that group therapy could be used effectively with the girls concerned. Research also indicated that the action-orientated, structured approach used in the so-called encounter groups is highly suitable for mentally handicapped, adolescent girls with behaviour disorders. The second step towards answering the question was to do group therapy and to study the effects. For this purpose a group therapy programme of nineteen sessions was planned from exercises drawn up by Daphne Lennox for children in residential treatment. The aim of the therapy was the improvement of each girl's communication behaviour in the group. To determine improved behaviour each subject's behaviour was evaluated according to the actualization of the essential categories of interpersonal communication. The therapy was done in two phases. During phase one, which included seven sessions, the research group was selected; during phase two, which included twelve sessions, the therapy was continued with the research group. The effects of the therapy was evaluated by means of * an evaluation of the communication behaviour of the group as a whole on a behaviour-evaluation-scale during the second phase of group therapy; * a subjective evaluation of the development of the group's communication behaviour during both phases of group therapy; * a one-way-analysis of variance to determine the nature of the inclination of the group's communication behaviour; * calculation of the inter-evaluator-reliability coefficient; * an evaluation of each subject's communication behaviour on a behaviour-evaluation-scale during the second phase of group therapy; * a subjective evaluation of the development of each subject's communication behaviour during both phases of group therapy; * oral, as well as written self-reports given by the subjects; * feedback from the school staff. The results of the study indicates that group therapy has led to improved communication behaviour of the research group. The results, however, are limited to their behaviour in the therapy group, and cannot be generalized to other situations.
- Education