Kriteria vir die bevorderbaarheid van onderwysers
Rheeders, Hendrik Jacobus Human
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All evaluative actions in teaching are based on the expression of value judgments about the actions of individuals. Learning results, the pupils, the teachers, the curriculum, the school, the school system, the examination as well as the teacher whose promotability has to be evaluated are all subjected to norms of effectivity, success, achievement, acceptibility and admissibility. Furthermore, it is important that evaluation, for the sake of purposefulness, should have curricular matrix. The primary basis of this matrix is its aims. No objective evaluation is possible without these aims being definitely outlined. The ultimate objective of all evaluation is and should be to determine to what extent the predetermined aims and objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation as a curricular component has been refined through research and it can therefore, at present, progress very successfully and optimally by means of determined criteria. In formal education, and more specifically at secondary school level, enormous stress has been placed on examination results in Standard 10 in the past. A potential headmaster's promotability was closely associated with his ability to obtain excellent academic results with his candidates. Good examination results are of course of cardinal importance in teaching, but should not be the only criteria for the promotability of a teacher. The headmaster should, for these reasons, not only be strongly academically orientated, but should also be strongly orientated as regards educational and professional issues. The rapid progress in management training, backed by research, does not leave teaching and its managers untouched. For effective task accomplishment and efficient managerial actions every headmaster and potential headmaster should be well versed in school management. That also has the implication that the potential headmaster with promotion in mind will be evaluated according to objective criteria. The selection of teaching staff for promotion posts must be dealt with by responsible people in a most sensitive manner. School and class management have, in the past decade, developed into an independent field of study and research within the wider field of Teaching Management. For this reason the headmaster, as an effective manager, will, according to the most modern management theories and management principles, have to function in numerous management areas. In determining his promotion close attention will be paid to both his management abilities and his competence. An extensive literary study indicates that the promotion determinants in teaching do not throughout comply with all the principles of evaluation. In overseas countries, as well as in South Africa, the selection of teachers for promotion posts is at present being done by means of professional consideration and judgment. A uniform method for the determination of the promotability of teachers is therefore a prerequisite for doing justice to the selection and choice of teachers in management posts. At present there is a need in the teaching profession for a system of objective criteria in determining the promotability of teachers. That will ensure that the most competent individuals are appointed in these important management posts. It is also essential that the objective criteria should be aimed at the requirements linked to each specific management post. This would serve to ensure that the pre-determined aims be realised. By means of literature study definite managerial competencies for headmastership were identified. For each of these managerial competency categories five criteria for promotability were designed which were to be arranged in hierarchical order by the total corps of inspectors of education in the Transvaal. After 80,2% of the questionnaires had been received, the collected data were subjected to an empirical investigation and the precise order of precedence of each criterion could be determined as it ought to be. The respondents were also requested to arrange the competency categories hierarchically. In this way one had to determine how the inspectors of education would arrange these competency categories in a scale indicating preference. From these data a means of measurement for promotability was compiled by means of which the evaluator, in an objective way, could gather relevant information which could lead to the efficient evaluation and promotability determination of the teacher in question. The fact that differences of opinion occurred among respondents with regard to the hierarchical arrangement of definite criteria can be ascribed to the fact that the criteria contained elements which might overlap. Criteria in these cases could not be seen to have been mutually exclusive. A clear synthesis could be obtained throughout that could be regarded as an acceptable hierarchical arrangement. There were no significant differences in the hierarchical classification of academic, non-academic and those of all inspectors of education collectively. It did emerge clearly that female respondents could not always distinguish clearly between the importance of the different criteria. From the research it is obvious that there is a need for criteria for the determination of the promotability of teachers. In overseas countries this very important function is fulfilled in a very haphazard fashion. In the RSA there are, in all the provincial education departments, selection boards or selection committees which deal with the selection for promotion posts in that they compile selection lists for governing bodies of schools. The grading and evaluation of promotability are dealt with by inspectors of education who make selections on the basis of the applicant's professional work, and who conduct an interview with the applicant, and then, in consultation with the headmaster, decide on the degree of promotability of the teacher in question. The requirement set in this regard is to gather information, to plan the interview well, and then determine as objectively as possible what the degree of promotability of the teacher in question is. Seeing that even in the planning of the interview there are no written, uniform and target-directed criteria, it is suggested that the designated means of measurement for the promotability of a candidate can be applied for this purpose. The means of measurement for the determining of a teacher's promotability must be applied by all evaluators. This system of action should make a positive contribution to the professional handling of the determination of the promotability of a teacher. The author at this stage does not make any claims as to the validity or reliability of the means of measurement of promotability. The validity and reliability thereof can only be determined after repeated application of these by evaluators after which the promotability of the teacher in educational practice must be determined.
- Education