Die geskiedenis van multikulturele onderwys in enkele lande met moontlike gesigspunte daaruit vir die Republiek van Suid–Afrika
Crause, Anna Francina
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In this investigation the history of multicultural education in certain selected countries (USA, France, Kenya and South Africa), with reference to a conceptual and theoretical framework that has been created, is described. In this framework certain culturally related key concepts or ideas, such as culture and cultural differences, which have repeatedly come to the fore in the investigation, are defined more accurately. The aim of the research was twofold, namely: • to trace in what ways the history of the selected countries evolved to deal with cultural diversity in education, and thereby prevent friction between various population groups, and • to determine the relevance and perspectives that arise from this for the future provision of education in South Africa. The research methods used to study the evolution of multicultural education in the selected countries was a literature review, the problem-historical method and the method of transcendental criticism. Sources for the literature review included journal articles, reports, speeches, newspaper articles, the Constitution of South Africa (Act 108), the Government Gazette, texts, dictionaries, encyclopaedias and the Internet. The researcher endeavoured to interpret the data about the past handling of multi cultures, in order to find a possible solution for the management of multi cultures in education in the present. The research revealed that a diversity of systems of approach has been and is being tested to manage cultural differences/cultural diversities/pluralisms in education: • the differences can be disregarded or over emphasised, as was the case in the old South Africa, or • the cultural differences can be acknowledged and applied, and the education system be adapted accordingly, as is the case, for example, in multicultural education or education for cultural pluralism. Perspectives for the future provision of education in South Africa that arose from the research are: • that the equalisation/suppression/disregard of the different cultures leads to dissatisfaction and rebellion. • That in multicultural education/education for cultural pluralism, diversity is recognised and respected within the framework of a classroom. • That the church and the school should be harnessed to assist with the process of preparing the learners for the multicultural society in which they will function outside of the school. • That the rights of all minority groups should be recognised. • That the economy of the country influences the manner in which cultural differences are approached in education, positively or negatively. Amongst other things education for cultural pluralism will mean: • that there will be no discrimination of any sort on the grounds of cultural difference, • that language in education must receive attention, • that a decision concerning the role of religion in education must be made, and • that the quality of education must create satisfaction. All role-players in the provision of education, such as learners, teachers, teacher organisations, parents, the society and especially the education policy developers, must take note of the perspectives in connection with the management of cultural diversity/differences in the education as revealed in this investigation, must recognise such differences and apply such insights in the future provision of education in South Africa.
- Education