A unique energy–efficiency–investment–decision–model for energy services companies
Bolt, Gerhardus Derk
MetadataShow full item record
To remain competitive in an environment with limited natural resources and ever-increasing operational costs, energy efficiency cannot be ignored. From this perspective the need for Energy Service Companies (ESCos) has arisen to address the supply constraint of national utilities and emission reductions faced by governments, to mitigate climate change. This has led to the development of two energy-efficiency finance business applications in South Africa, namely Demand-Side Management (DSM) under Eskom and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. The technologies developed by ESCos, primarily for DSM energy efficiency projects, can be directly applied to generate Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) units, or carbon credits under the CDM business model. ESCo executives now need to decide which option will be more profitable; a once-off Rand/MW value from Eskom-DSM or an annual return on investment (ROI) from selling CERs over an extended crediting period. With a volatile CER price and bureaucratic registration procedures, it is very important that managers have all the right information at hand before making such decisions. A unique energy-efficiency investment decision model is developed that incorporates cost benefit analysis, based on the ESCos chosen risk profile. All attributes to the model of both DSM and CDM are defined, discussed and quantified into a decision analysis framework that would minimize risk and maximize profit. These attributes include life cycle analysis, technology transfer, cash flow, future CER prices, and associated project and political risks. The literature and background information that builds up to the development of this decision model serves as a complete handbook with guidelines to the South African energy services industry and investors. This study proposes a new energy-efficiency methodology under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that would increase the amount of CDM energy efficiency projects in South Africa and internationally. The methodology is designed to improve control system efficiency of any large electricity consumer instead of being equipment-specific. This implies that developers can use the same methodology regardless of whether the end-users are clear water pumping systems, compressed air systems, fans etc. This will reduce the cost of registering new methodologies with the UNFCCC and make CDM a more lucrative option to ESCos and other developers. This new energy-efficiency methodology and finance decision model was used in a case study to test its validity and accuracy. Two supporting technologies, REMS-CARBON and OSIMS, were developed in conjunction with HVAC International and tested at the clear water pumping system of Kopanang gold mine. The results from the case study demonstrated that this model is an acceptable tool in ensuring that ESCos gain maximum benefit from energy efficiency finance initiatives. Due to the experience gained with the modalities, procedures and pitfalls of DSM and CDM, further suggestions are made for new protocols to follow the Kyoto Protocol post-2012. South Africa and specifically ESCos could be very well positioned in a global “cap-andtrade” future carbon market.
- Engineering 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Hodas, David R (2013)Ecosystems services include the collection, concentration, and storage of solar energy as fossil fuels (e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas). These concentrated forms of energy were produced by ancient ecosystem ...
Bieldt, Frederick (2015)South Africa is in the critical process of determining the profile of its power composition for the next 30 years and beyond. From the IRP2010 it seems that too much emphasis is placed on renewable energy, coal and other ...
Barnard, Michelle (2014)The promotion of sustainable development is an objective shared by African Union (AU) member states and the pursuance thereof is expressly mandated by the Constitutive Act of the African Union, 2000 and the Treaty Establishing ...