Metakognisie as bepaler van leesbegrip
De Klerk, André Louis
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1. AIM - The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between metacognition and reading comprehension and also the relationship between metacognition, age and reading comprehension. 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE STUDY - In chapter 2 the cognitive approach to learning and reading, according to which the learner/reader plays an active role in the processing of information, is discussed. The human information processing system is discussed and the chapter is concluded with a discussion of how reading comprehension failures occur due to problems associated with the information processing system. In chapter 3 metacognition is defined and discussed based on the views of John Flavell, Ann Brown and Scott Paris and his co-workers. Certain factors affecting metacognition are also discussed. In chapter 4 the teaching of metacognition and reading strategies are discussed. Text processing strategies and text reorganising strategies are discussed which enable readers to regulate the level of their reading comprehension when comprehension failures occur. 3. EXPERIMENTAL REVIEW - An ex post facto research was undertaken involving all the standard 1 and standard 3 pupils of the largest of three primary schools in a specific town in the PI/IN region. Two questionnaires were used. One questionnaire, which was completed by both groups, tested metacognitive knowledge and skills such as evaluation, planning, regulation and conditional knowledge. Another questionnaire tested reading comprehension by means of a cloze test, an error detection test and a conventional comprehension test. Two different questionnaires were used for the two groups. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the data to determine the contribution of each independent variable (planning, evaluation, regulation and conditional knowledge) on the dependent variables (cloze test, error detection test and comprehension test). 3.1 Results - The following metacognitive variables influenced performance in the reading comprehension tests: * Error detection test : planning and conditional knowledge at std. 1 level and evaluation and regulation at std. 3-level. * Cloze test : only planning at std. 1 level and planning, regulation and conditional knowledge at std. 3 level. * Comprehension test : only conditional knowledge at std. 3 level. The results seem to indicate that metacognitive variables do affect performance in reading comprehension tests and that metacognition is related to age, considering the fact that the more "advanced" components of metacognition namely conditional knowledge and regulation affect performance mainly at std. 3 level. The number of metacognitive variables affecting performance in the three comprehension tests, three at std. 1 level and six at standerd three level, also indicates that metacognition develops with age. Due to the small population sample used in the study, however, no general conclusion can be drawn from these results.
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