Liggaamlike weerbaarheid in onderwysperspektief
Jacobs, Willem Johannes Stefanus
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At the beginning of this thesis it was mentioned that God created man in a unique way, namely as an integrated body-soul-being, to His image with the instruction to rule the earth. According to this assignment man is therefore involved in his corporeality since he is also corpulently created to this image. Although this study is concerned with physical preparedness, continuous consideration should be given to man as an integrated body-soul-being. This point of view necessitates a proper definition of the concept "physical preparedness". Accordingly the concept "physical preparedness" is eluoidated with the related concepts "preparedness", "physical preparedness", "mental preparedness" and "moral preparedness". "Physical preparedness" is seen as an integral component of man's total preparedness equipment. Furthermore it concerns man's physical welfare and involvement with all aspects of his being. The point of view that physical preparedness is an integral and indispensable part of the total preparedness equipment, is related to the first problem of this study, namely that when making the child physically prepared he is involved as a person in totality. In other words he is present as a physical-moral being. The need for educational institutions to become involved in physical preparedness programmes arises from the fact that man is no longer physically fit because there are a number of factors within modern society which hamper the physique of man. Education must also take into consideration that mismanagement of leisure time also threatens man's standard of physical preparedness. Education furthermore has to find ways in which youth can become involved and will be made prepared. The above mentioned problems lead to the objectives of this study, namely to point out that physical preparedness is an integral part of every person's preparedness equipment and as such will constitute part of the total preparedness program at educational institutions. To achieve these objectives with this investigation and to place physical preparedness in an educational perspective it was firstly regarded necessary to provide; by way of a literature study, views of various commentators on the subject. Secondly questionnaires were implemented and interviews were conducted to determine from the attitude of practising teaching personnel, whether a need for a physical preparedness program exists. Finally a functional physical preparedness program is introduced on an inductive basis. Since the education system discussed in this thesis is Christian by nature, physical preparedness is also discussed from a Christian-Calvinistic point of view and founded on Biblical preparedness knowledge. Biblical views and revelations about the reality of man's physical existence are used as points of reference. Man in totality was created to God's image not man's soul, or his spirit, or his body, or any aspect of his being which was created to God's image, but man himself. This means that man's body is a likeness of God's body and therefore must continually be related to God and His actions. The fact that the Bible refers to man's body as the temple of the Holy Ghost, places a tremendous responsibility on the shoulders of every Christian educator. This view undoubtedly gives priority and status to physical education and physical preparedness in education. Everywhere in the Bible man is presented as a being in whom soul and body are inseparably joined to the innermost being. This points to the fact that man does not have a body (and a soul), but that he is his body (and soul). It is important for the educator to know that man, according to Biblical terms is also an integrated and complete unity that cannot be divided dualistically into material and spiritual functions. It is essential for the physical preparedness educator to believe that the human body has a glorious eternal destination in the Kingdom of God. With the belief in the resurrection of the flesh education and training has a definite responsibility to bring home a positive religious physical consciousness to its pupils. According to the Bible man is indebted to God for the rendering of physical service. The physical preparedness educator must also accept it as his task to educate the child in deep dependence on submission and responsibility to God for true rendering of service. Faith is therefore a primary requirement for physical preparedness. It is seen as a prerequisite with respect to all the essences of physical preparedness. Various authors agree that physical fitness is the foundation of physical preparedness while emotional fitness, mental fitness, spiritual fitness and social fitness are also described as essential for effective physical preparedness. Health relation to the physical, spiritual, mental and social abilities of man is regarded as an equally important essence of physical preparedness. It is essential that every youth and adult should regard physical health as his/her personal responsibility. The school in conjunction with the parental home has an important role to play in the provision of health education to bring about a healthy and prepared nation. Thorough knowledge of the structure and functioning of the body as well as a knowledge of all the basic essentials of physical preparedness are regarded as imperative for the actualisation of physical preparedness in the life of man. A positive attitude, outlook on life and convictions with regard to physical preparedness are seen as additional requirements for the manifestation of physical preparedness. It is the responsibility of educators to literally lead the youth to obtain out of own desire, a physically prepared style of life. The own acceptance of responsibility for the actualisation of physical preparedness of the self is also described as a fundamental feature. Since learning activities and behaviour are influenced by motivation, it is seen as an indispensable prerequisite for physical preparedness. Motivation is an internal process that can serve to rouse physical preparedness. Optimal motivational possibilities must be built into the physical preparedness program in order to enrich the preparedness equipment of the child. Physical preparedness is not automatically brought about it is a dynamic event closely related to or influenced by the individual's personality and character. Personality development and character shaping are also described as primary requirements for physical preparedness. Before an actual structure was introduced according to which these physical preparedness essences can be realised, it was considered necessary to review the historical course of physical preparedness after the implementation of the youth preparedness program and also to look at physical preparedness in the current education system. According to the findings of the historical investigation physical preparedness had already been viewed as an important component of youth preparedness even before the introduction of the youth preparedness program. In 1968 the Committee of Teaching Heads already accentuated the development of basic physical and moral preparedness as objectives of preparedness. This committee recommended that physical preparedness should form part of the physical education program. It was, however, found that since the physical preparedness program was introduced in 1971 there has been no evidence of a physical preparedness program or of physical preparedness as a component of the youth preparedness program. Physical preparedness has, however, been continuously characterised as important. The establishment of the "Preparedness Year" and the "Health Year" in 1979 naturally also accentuated the importance of physical preparedness. The investigation into physical preparedness does not imply that no physical preparing is done at schools; it has on the contrary been established by means of questionnaires that teachers are of the opinion that satisfactory physical preparing does occur. It has been established that teachers who completed questionnaires are exceptionally positive about the introduction of a physical preparedness program. They also regard the actualisation of all aspects of physical preparedness as very important. It can be concluded that they regard physical preparedness as an integral part of man's preparedness equipment. They also regard it as essential that man has to be prepared against the negative results of the modern ease-loving way of living on his physique. Teachers attach much importance to the input of education authorities and of everyone else concerned with the education and involvement of all pupils in physical preparedness at school. In the exposition of the task of the teacher in preparing the child physically, it is important to stress that it is a highly demanding task. To lead the toddler who is to a great extent physically unprepared to become a completely physically prepared school-leaver demands a lot of all concerned. Specific aims of physical preparedness have to be achieved before the child is physically prepared. These aims are thoroughly formulated and cover a wide spectrum. In the first place it is pointed out that physical preparedness constitutes an integral part of the general aims of teaching, namely to reach adulthood and become a fully mature citizen. Secondly the specific aims of physical preparedness are based on the following: physical considerations mainly comprising all man's physical abilities; health reasons that among others include the promoting of health and healthy ways of life; spiritual considerations comprising the strengthening of the belief in the Biblical preparedness knowledge with regard to the physique; psychological considerations comprising the raising of specific moral aspects that are related to physical preparedness; social considerations that among others include increasing social acceptance and promoting mass participation. In order to propose a new structure through which these aims can be realised it is necessary to look critically at the present situation first. Then it can be determined, if this is the case, why physical preparedness does not come into its own. According to the South African Defence Force, heads of departments at teachers' training colleges, the HSRC snort investigation and superintendents of education, the contribution to physical preparedness is at present inadequate and the "product" that leaves school does not comply with expectations. Many shortcomings exist in the presentation of physical preparedness, extramural sports and youth preparedness with regard to physical preparedness. There does, however, exist satisfactory opportunity within the present teaching situation to fully equip the child as physically prepared. The foundation for physical preparedness must already be laid during the important first five years of the child's life. It is the responsibility of education, to provide guidance to parents, so that they, in co-operation with the nursery school can help the child to reach school readiness with regard to his physical maturity. This co-operation with the parents must be kept up continuously, it must also be extended to other sectors of society since the school cannot on its own be responsible for a physically prepared youth. In educational context it is especially the teacher who is important, because he influences the child with his enthusiasm and example to physical preparedness. All teachers can contribute to physical preparedness, but some are in a more favourable position, because of the specific nature of the contents of certain subjects. It is especially the physical training teacher who has unparalleled opportunities to influence and motivate the children for physical preparedness due to the unique contact he has with pupils. The physical training teacher can endeavour to realise all the aims of physical preparedness, and especially those that are formulated on physical grounds are to be pursued. The subject "health education" offers the teacher the opportunity to lay health as foundation of physical preparedness. He can inspire the children to maintain a high standard of personal health. The Christian religious instruction teacher's task is to convey the Christian outlook on life with regard to man's physical existence to the child by means of religious instruction. The teacher has to encourage the child to serve God gratefully with his body. Through his subject the biology teacher can heighten the child's understanding, perception, respect and appreciation of his body. In the history class the pupil's attention must be drawn to the important role that a healthy and strong body has played throughout the ages in the survival of his ancestors. The language teacher has to compel the child to self-tuition with regard to certain aspects of physical education. The extramural program is regarded as a very important area for physical preparedness. When extramural activities are handled systematically and correctly they can make a justifiable contribution to the physical preparedness of the child. The sport program especially has educational possibilities for the physical preparedness teacher. Sport has a potential educational power which gives the teacher the opportunity in conjunction with the physical education teacher to pursue all the aims of physical preparedness. The major task of the teacher is to involve all the pupils and to direct their attitudes in such a way that participation in sport will form an integral part of a healthy Christian and physically prepared life style. The cultural societies at school also aim to develop the child in totality. These societies must therefore also take the foundations for physical preparedness into consideration and make a contribution to the development of a healthy body and a healthy way of life. Well planned recreational programs, in which especially the non-achiever in sport is involved has to be introduced at schools. It has to provide in the need for involvement and offer the opportunity for the development of the child's physical abilities. The component "physical preparedness" must be added to the youth preparedness program in the same way as the "moral preparedness" component. This means that it will not be reduced to only physical activities, but that it will be part of the total preparedness action in which every teacher and every educational act (where possible) will continuously be mindful of and directed at physical preparing. The head of department for educational guidance and the headmaster must take care that all the aspects of physical preparedness are co-ordinated and consolidated. Certain periods, as part of the component "physical and moral preparedness", must be incorporated in the section "physical preparedness" in order to impart the necessary theoretical knowledge to the child. By confronting the child with challenges concerning his physique the veld-school can provide him with the opportunity to discover his physical abilities and to use these in the solution of problems with which he is confronted. He also discovers that others are dependent on his physical conduct and his attitude to venturing. The importance of spending leisure time is also realised. The school must motivate, shape his attitude and supply the necessary help and knowledge with regard to useful spending of leisure time. By educating pupils to voluntarily partake in swimming, tennis, jogging, mountaineering, exercise, cycling and other recreational activities during their leisure hours during school term and also during holidays, the school can contribute to the establishment of lasting physical preparedness patterns. In conjunction with the above mentioned physical preparedness actions taken by primary and secondary teaching institutions, the tertiary institutions must extend on what already has been done. It is the responsibility of the college and the university, acting in the interest of a country and its people, to see that every student who completes his studies will do so as a physically and morally prepared adult. The tertiary institution has the special task to fully train the teaching student to efficiently and professionally prepare his pupils physically. This investigation has accentuated the need for and the importance of physical preparedness as an integrated facet of man's preparedness equipment. Modern society with its ease-loving life style makes the implementation of a physical preparedness program by educational institutions imperatively necessary. Through the input of educational authorities and the contributions of all those concerned with education and training as well as the involvement of all pupils, the youth of South Africa can be guided, formed and trained as totally rounded off, fully equipped, mature, physically and morally prepared adults and citizens.
- Humanities