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The in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of polylactic–co–glycolic acid nanoparticles encapsulating anti–tuberculosis drugs
Booysen, Laetitia Lucretia Ismarelda Josephine
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, deadly disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). In 2010, there were 8,8 million incident cases of TB globally. South Africa currently has the third highest TB incident cases worldwide. In an attempt to address the challenges facing TB chemotherapy, among which frequent dosing and long duration of therapy resulting in poor patient compliance, a novel poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS) encapsulating anti-TB drugs was developed. It is hypothesised that this nanoparticulate DDS will address the challenges mentioned by enabling decreased dosing frequency, shortening duration of therapy and minimising adverse side effects. Therefore, favourable modification of pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the conventional anti-TB drugs was demonstrated. Furthermore, the nanoparticles will provide a platform for drug delivery to macrophages that serve as hosts for M.tb. The study design was based on determining specific physicochemical properties of the nanoparticulate DDS to elucidate the hypothesis. Spray-dried PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. In vivo analysis of macrophage uptake and possible immunological response in mice were evaluated. In vitro protein-binding assays of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating anti-TB drugs isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) were performed with subsequent in vivo tissue distribution assays to support protein-binding data generated. Finally, PK/PD analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of nanoencapsulation on the anti-TB drugs. These involved in vitro assays to determine if sufficient drug was released from the nanoparticles to exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). Furthermore, in vivo drug distribution and drug release kinetics assays of encapsulated RIF, INH, pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (ETB) in a mouse model were performed. The results confirmed that the PLGA nanoparticles (<250 nm, low positive zeta potential) were taken up by macrophages in vivo with no significant immunological effect. Furthermore the nanoparticles were present in the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver and spleen for up to 7 days following once-off oral dosing at 13.23± 0.11%, 16.81± 0.11%, 54.89± 0.95%, 15.61± 1.15%, 48.48± 2.28% and 5.73± 0.21%, respectively. This was further confirmed by drug analysis demonstrating the presence of INH, RIF and ETB at different time points up to 7 days in the lungs, kidneys, liver and spleen. However, PZA was not detected. Nanoencapsulated RIF and INH exhibited MICs and MBCs in vitro over 14 days and these drugs were also observed in plasma for up to 7 days post once-off oral dosing. ETB and PZA were observed up to 3 days. From the results generated, it can be concluded that the nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages without eliciting an immune response. This provides a platform for drug delivery to specific sites. Furthermore, the nanoparticulate DDS exhibited sustained drug release in vitro and in vivo over a number of days above the MIC for the drugs analysed. Sustained drug distribution was also observed. It can therefore be concluded that the hypothesised reduction in dose frequency and duration of therapy for this DDS is a possibility
- Health Sciences