Die finansiële bestuurstaak van die skoolhoof
Niemann, Gabriel Stephanus
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An investigation on the provision of education in the Republic of South Africa was launched in 1980 by the Human Sciences Research Council, commissioned by the Cabinet. It was evident from the report emanating from the investigation (Report of the Main Committee of the HSRC on education- 1981) that there is a disparity in respect of the division of education funds in the South African education system. In order to attain parity, the Report indicated that very high demands will be made on treasury. This implies that the community is bound to make ever greater financial inputs to education. The fact that the increased contributions to the financing of education by the state as well as the community also demands greater accountability of the school, has been taken as the point of departure for this investigation. The view is taken that principals of schools must manage the available monies in accordance with scientific principles. This aspect of management constitutes a full and equal component of the principal's management, and it is labelled school business management. Against this background the following goals have been formulated for this investigation: * to obtain a clear perspective on school business management; * to found school business management in accordance with education management principles; and * to found school business management scripturally. Chapter 1 deals with the explanation of management terms, creation of context and points of view. A difference was made between education administration and education management, the general approaches to education management was spelled out, and school business management was motivated as a perspective of education as a science. Chapter 2 is mainly stating a perspective of school business management within the context of financing education. It has been indicated that the financing of education constitutes one of the nodal points between the economical reality and the reality of education, and from the nature of this connection the financing aspect has been analyzed as a take-off to school business management. The present application of school business management in the USA, England and the RSA was also undertaken in Chapter 2. In terms of this analysis and evaluation, the nature and essence of school business management have been penetrated and the terrain delimited. The choice of the management task and the management area approach have determined the further course of the investigation. The four main management tasks (planning, organizing, giving guidance and exercising control) have been used as bases for chapters 3 to 6 respectively. However, it must be emphasized that the management tasks function intertwinedly and can never be separated. The differentiation which is indeed made in this study, has only been made for academical purposes. In chapter 3 planning as management task has been investigated, At the outset the universal features of planning as a management act has been spelled out. After planning as an education management act has been evaluated in the light of pre-suppositions, it has been defined as school business management. The budget has been identified as the most important financial planning instrument in the school. It has also been simultaneously emphasized that the budget is not a system at the hand of which education monies may be managed. Broadly speaking, budgeting constitutes only one aspect of school business management, namely the planning of the school finance. In this light the sub-tasks of planning (determining objectives, formulating policy, solving problems, and taking decisions) pose concretely in the budgeting procedure. An investigation on organizing as school business management task of the principal was undertaken in chapter 4. The sub-tasks of organizing have been identified as creating an organization structure, delegating and co-ordinating. The principial foundations of these acts have been defined, and, finally, it has been indicated how organizing in its own specific way is embodied as school business management task. Chapter 5 was an in-depth investigation on the task of giving guidance by the principal of the school. In the light of the pre-suppositions an explanation was given of some applicable concepts, amongst others, theories of leadership, styles of leadership and theories of motivation. The individual features of the sub-tasks of giving guidance (constituting relationships, motivating and communicating) as school business management acts, have become specifically evident from the two-facetted nature of giving guidance as school business management task. When managing school finance the principal of the school has to do, on the one hand, with guiding the teaching personnel (i.e. giving guidance internally), and, on the other hand with guiding the community (i.e. giving guidance externally). It was concluded that the principal of the school has been principally called to give guidance as regards the utilization of school funds. To give guidance aims at promoting educative teaching, and when school business management is at stake per se, it gives rise to mismanagement. In chapter 6 the last main management task, exercising control, is brought into perspective. After the universal features of the exercising of control as a management act has initially been indicated, its individual nature as an education management task has been pointed out. In conclusion, the implications of exercising control as school business management task has been spelled out. It was indicated that control techniques (amongst others, cost analyses, cost indexes, auditing etc.) may be utilized in specific ways to exercise control over financial activities in the school. In the final instance it was printed out that the school principal is accountable for the activities of the school, and as such he is called to control the utilization of education funds. To sum: The management tasks figure in a multi-dimensional context. Tasks are intertwined, and are not executed independently from one another. Management is only management when all management acts are really functioning. This dynamic intertwining nature of management is embodied in its own specific way in school business management. The most important perspectives emanating from the investigation come to the fore by means of the following deductions: The increased financial inputs by the state and the community on behalf of education provision necessitate the school to manage education funds in accordance with sound business practices and principles. School business management is not synonymous with business management. The former is directed at educative teaching, whilst business management aims at accumulating ever bigger working profits. Not with standing the peculiar characteristic of school business management and business management the two part-perspectives need not be developed independently and in isolation. Business management as a science of management has already developed to a high level, and school business management can link up with and derive much from the research results. Furthermore, school business management is not a facet of financial education administration. School business management as well as financial education administration is an independent part-perspective of education as a science, each one with its own task and field of research. The management task and management area model lends itself very well to define school business occurrences. In accordance with this model school business management constitutes a full-fledged education management area which is managed at the hand of four main management tasks (planning, organizing, giving guidance and exercising control). The management tasks are embodied in a peculiar, characteristic way in school business management. Business principles play a strategic role in the planning and organizing of and exercising control over school finance. As regards their training in and advancing their knowledge of school business management education leaders must be oriented with regard to business principles. Though a system approach gives rise to the absolutization of specific management acts the implementation of an information system, linked with a computer, can render assistance to school business management provided that it will not serve as a substitute of the principal of the school as a planner, organiser, leader or one who exercises control over a school's financial activities. Owing to divergent pre-suppositions and their accompanying philosophies of life, the principals of schools of the different population communities manage the school finance in a differentiated manner. Financial management training of education leaders should, therefore, be culturally differentiated and in accordance with their life-views. The humanistic approach gives rise to an attenuated view of managing education, and it results in the absolutization of specific aspects thereof. Training programmes in school business management must put Christian principals of schools on their guard against humanistic presuppositions which will tend to lead to nominalistical, mechanistical, behaviouristic or deterministic views of education management theories, By virtue of the results of investigation and deductions the following recommendations have been made: Extensive research must be undertaken to expand school business management as a perspective of education management. As a point of departure the results of research on business management and the possibilities to apply it to school business management must be investigated, A further possibility is to evaluate some of the system approaches (PPBS, PERT, MBO etc.), and to identify those elements which will be of a positive value to school business management, An investigation on the specific characteristic application of school business management in the different South African sub-education systems as well as in the various types of schools (pre-primary, primary and secondary schools) will considerably extend the area of knowledge of school business management. Research which will lead to the establishment of education management models (also including workshops) for the training and development of education leaders in school business management, is urgently necessary. Linked to this attention must be paid to implementing an information system as well as the utilization possibilities of the computer in school business management. A number of recommendations with regard to the implementation of the results of research have also been made. School business management should be presented from the B.Ed. level in formal courses. Admission to a B.Ed. course, specializing in the Art of Education Management must be limited to teachers with at least five years of real teaching experience. The study contents of the Art of Education Management (as an optional subject for the B.Ed. course) must figure in the very first year of study. During the second year of study the study contents should be concentrated on the education management areas (amongst others, school business management). Workshops must also constitute an integral part of the course. Education departments should demand an official qualification in the Art of Education Management for the post of principal of a school. In view of this, faculties of education at universities must, in consultation with education departments, draw up curricula in any course of education management. In conclusion it is recommended that a course in school business management for Christian principals of schools must be scripturally founded. If more comprehensive co-ordination between the study contents of the Art of Education Management and the perspectives of education as a science can be obtained, school business management will become more meaningful and economical and principals of schools will then become better equipped for their calling.
- Education