The education system of Zambia after independence
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Chapter 1 looks into the following matters: • Problem or Research: The problem of research is: * to determine the changes that look place with regard to the structure or the Zambian Education System with respect to the Educational Reform and needs of the people after Independence. * to determine the changes in educational policy, organizational structure, school system and supportive services as a result of the Educational Reform in the post independence era. • Aims of Research: The purpose or this study is: * to describe the development of the Zambian Education System in a historical perspective. * to define the concept or Education for Development (Draft Statement) and Educational Reform and its influence on the educational policy. * to determine the changes In the organizational structures after independence, * to determine the changes with regard to the school system and supportive services after independence. • Methods of Research: The following methods or research were used: literature study and interviews. • Demarcation of the field of study: This study is confined to the education system of Zambia in the pre-independence and post-idependence periods. The theoretical structure of the education system has been discussed in chapter 2 as well as general information about Zambia. • The definition of the education system is given in this chapter as well as the components, namely, the educational policy, educational administration, school system and supportive services of the education system. • The general description of Zambia Includes the geographical situation, the political history, peoples of Zambia, economy and political structure. The historical development of the education system of Zambia is given in chapter 3. The following represent the main eras: • Missionary education: The Missionaries took a keen interest in the writing of the African languages and started leaching people to read and write. • Involvement of the British Government in African Education: * The native schools proclamation of 1918. According to this proclamation schools had to be registered with the administrator and teachers be certified competent. * The educational policy of 1925 The educational policy of 1925 urged that education should be adopted to the needs of the people. * Creation of African Education Department in 1925. G.C. Latham was appointed the first director of African Education Department. He issued mission schools with a school code according to which all mission schools had to function. * Education under the Federal Era 1953- 1963. The Federation of the North and South Rhodesia and Nyasaland brought about changes in the education system. • Education in Post-independence Zambia AI independence the government aimed at giving education the first priority. * The Education Act of 1966 In terms of the Act, racially segregated schools had to be abolished and non-free paying schools introduced. Chapter 4 of this study will look into the formulation of the educational policy. The following are the main issues: • Formulation and content of the educational policy. The entire nation was involved in the formulation of educational policy in a form of a "National Debate" launched by Dr. K.D. Kaunda in May 1976. the Educational Reform aimed at providing 9 years of compulsory basic education. • The third national development plan The plan aimed at increasing educational facilities. • The fourth national development plan This plan aimed at improving the technical and agricultural aspects of education as well as the standard of Mathematics and Science subjects. The organisational structures in Zambian Education System are discussed in chapter 5. Attention is given to: • Different Education Ministries The Ministry of General Education and Culture and the Ministry of Higher Education are responsible for the implementation of the educational policy in Zambia. • Control of education AI the head of each Ministry there is a Minister who is also a member of the cabinet. The Inspectorate is the professional wing of the Ministries with the responsibility of control and co-ordination of education. The school system and supportive services are exposed as follows in chapter 6: • The School System the functional pattern in Zambia is 7 years of primary education, 2 years of junior secondary and 3 years of senior secondary education. The idea is that the quality and quantity of services still leave very much to be desired. • Supportive Services The educational system in Zambia uses various supportive services to facilitate effective leaching and learning. Chapter 7 summarises all ideas discussed in the afore chapters. Findings and recommendations are made.
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