Die kontinuïteit van onderrigleergeleenthede tussen die eietydse Westerse gesin en die skool
CHAPTER 1: Postulation of problem, purpose, method and program of study. 1. Postulating the problem: The following problematical questions are investigated in this study (i) Can the teaching methods of the school be based on the teaching-learning opportunities of the home? (ii) Are the teaching-learning opportunities optimally actualised in the home and the school? (iii) Will the experience of continuity and discontinuity have any effect on the pupil? 2. Aim of study: The following aims have been set for this study: (i) To determine if the teaching methods used in the school are structured on the basic teaching-learning methods, namely speech, play, example and command. (ii) To discover the factors that influence the realisation of teaching-learning opportunities in the home. (iii) To discover the factors that influence the realisation of teaching-learning opportunities in the school. (iv) To find out what the effect on the pupil will be if he experiences continuity between the teaching-learning opportunities of the home and the school. (v) To find out what the effect on the pupil will be if he experiences discontinuity between the teaching-learning opportunities of the home and the school. 3. Study method: An extensive study has been done on different sources of literature. The programme of study is set out in the last part of chapter 1. CHAPTER 2: Teaching - learning opportunities. The origin and different teaching-learning opportunities are set out in this chapter. The relationship of teaching methods to teaching strategies and didactic principles will also be indicated. 1. Origin of teaching-learning opportunities: The basic teaching-learning opportunities are to be found in the family namely speech, play, example and command. They can only qualify as teaching-learning opportunities if they are used in such a way to achieve educational goals. These basic teaching-learning opportunities can be traced back to primitive communities. In the primitive community the father demonstrated hunting and the making of weapons to his sons. The mother demonstrated the preparation of food and the making of clothes from skins, to their daughters. The thoughts of prominent historic personalities are characterised by their originality. They have expressed important ideas concerning education which have been developed by followers. The first knowledge can be traced back to the Bible when God instructed Adam to name all the animals (Gen. 2:19). Speech as a teaching-learning opportunity was also used by Jesus. His conversations were informal and He often made use of parables and proverbs. 2. The relationship of the original teaching-learning opportunities and teaching strategies to teaching methods: The original informal teaching-learning opportunities found in the home are speech, play, example and command. There are three important teaching strategies, namely indicative, selfdiscovery and interactive. These teaching strategies represent a more general plan of approach, under which teaching methods play a more instrumental role in the revelation of learning content. The formal teaching methods of the school can be based on the informal teaching-learning opportunities of the home. CHAPTER 3: Teaching-learning opportunities and the family. In this chapter attention is given to the prerequisites for the establishing of teaching-learning opportunities in the home. The importance of the father and the mother actualising teaching-learning opportunities is emphasised. Finally the factors influencing the realisation of teaching-learning opportunities are identified. 1. Important prerequisites for the establishing of effective teaching-learning Opportunities in the family: The following prerequisites can be mentioned family harmony, discipline and the relationship between parent and child. 2. Teaching-learning opportunities and the father: The study indicated that the father should take great care to implement teaching-learning opportunities successfully. The father's work and social involvement may prevent him from actualising teaching-learning adequately. 3. Teaching learning opportunities and the mother: The mother as a housewife should take great care to actualize teaching-learning opportunities. Her being at home is no guarantee that teaching-learning opportunities are being implemented optimally. The mother who is involved with household chores or social activities can also neglect the upbringing of her children. It is possible for the working mother to cope with sufficient actualisation of teaching-learning opportunities. This can only happen if the mother receives enough help with household chores to enable her to spend enough time with the children. 4. Factors that will influence the realising of teaching - learning Opportunities in the home. The factors that influence the realising of teaching-learning opportunities can be divided into two groups. The first group contains the static factors. Their influence on teaching-learning opportunities cannot be changed by other institutions, for example the socio-economic status of the family. The influence of the dynamic factors on teaching-learning opportunities can be changed. CHAPTER 4: teaching - learning opportunities" and the school. There are certain factors which will influence the teacher's optimal actualisation of teaching-learning opportunities, Other factors have been identified that will influence the pupil's involvement with teaching-learning opportunities. 1. Teaching learning opportunities and the teacher: The study identified the factors that can influence the teacher's optimal realisation of teaching-learning opportunities. The pupil's appearance, personality and school achievement can influence the teacher's attitude towards him. 2. Teaching-learning opportunities and the pupil: In the utilization of teaching-learning opportunities, teachers should take the individual differences of pupils into consideration. Special attention should be given to the pupils cognitive entry behaviour, affective entry behaviour and the psychomotoric skills. CHAPTER 5: In this chapter continuity and discontinuity of teaching-learning opportunities between home and school is discussed. Special attention is given to the identification of discontinuity and how to rectify it. 1. Continuity: The child will experience continuity if the teaching methods of the school are based on the teaching-learning opportunities of the home. It is also important that parents actualise teaching-learning opportunities qualitatively and quantitatively. 2. Discontinuity: If parents neglect the quantity and the quality of teaching-learning opportunities, the child will suffer from discontinuity when he enters school. 3. Continuity of teaching-learning opportunities: The primary contribution towards continuity comes from the home. The education provided by the parents is the most important preparation for school entrance. The parents' contribution towards the education of their child does not stop when the child enters school. The responsibility of the parents cannot be handed over to the school. Parents should be involved in the school and should take an interest in the child's role as a pupil. The most important aspect of the school's contribution towards continuity are : co-operation between teacher and pupil ; sound communication between home and school ; utilisation of the vocational guidance system and promoting cultural activities in the community. 4. Discontinuity of teaching-learning opportunities: The most important consequence of discontinuity is the insufficient actualisation of teaching-learning opportunities in the home. Other important consequences of discontinuity are : the child not being school ready the absence of parental interest in school activities and the didactic incapability of the teacher. The influence of discontinuity on the pupil, results in weak academic achievement, behavioural problems and early drop-outs from school. 5. Identification of discontinuity: It is important to identify discontinuity as soon as possible. The teacher is in the most favourable position to identify discontinuity. The pupil suffering from discontinuity should be observed very carefully. These observations should comply with certain scientific criteria. 6. Modification of discontinuity The child suffering from discontinuity together with his parents should be involved in a programme to rectify discontinuity. It is very difficult to identify discontinuity in young children. Special programmes should be available to prevent discontinuity. CHAPTER 6: summary, conclusions and recommendations. In this chapter recommendations in connection with identification and modification of discontinuity are discussed.
- Education