On the development and applications of a three–dimensional ab initio cosmic–ray modulation model
Engelbrecht, Nicholas Eugéne
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A proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic-rays in the heliosphere is imperative for a better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation. This study presents an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. The latter model is solved for solar minimum heliospheric conditions, utilizing boundary values chosen in such a way that the results of this model are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the ecliptic plane, but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra, which in turn are used as inputs for parallel mean free paths based on those derived from quasi-linear theory, and perpendicularmean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. The modelled 2D spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The use of such a spectrum yields a non-divergent 2D ultrascale, which is used as an input for the reduction terms proposed to model the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts. The resulting diffusion and drift coefficients are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons, electrons, antiprotons, and positrons using a three-dimensional, steady-state numerical cosmic-ray modulation code. The magnitude and spatial dependence of the 2D outerscale is demonstrated to have a significant effect on computed cosmic-ray intensities. A form for the 2D outerscale was found that resulted in computed cosmic-ray intensities, for all species considered, in reasonable agreement with multiple spacecraft observations. Computed galactic electron intensities are shown to be particularly sensitive to choices of parameters pertaining to the dissipation range of the slab turbulence spectrum, and certain models for the onset wavenumber of the dissipation range could be eliminated in this study.