Metabolic syndrome marker cut–off points and target organ damage revisited in an urban South African cohort : the SABPA study
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MetS among different African populations using the new Joint Statement Criteria. Hereafter we aimed to determine whether waist or neck circumference is the best predictor of MetS risk after ethnic, gender and age-specific cut-points were developed. Lastly, we aimed to determine whether afore-mentioned cut-point can predict albumin : creatinine ratio as a marker of target organ damage. Methods: The study sample (N=409) comprised of urban African (men, N=101; women, N=99) and Caucasian (men, N=101; women, N=108) teachers from the Dr. Kenneth Kaunda Education district in the North-West Province, South Africa. Participants were aged between 25 and 65 years. Anthropometric measurements, albumin:creatinine ratio and other markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) (systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP], glucose, triglycerides [TG] and high density lipoprotein [HDL]) were determined. Results: Africans (65 and 63 % for men and women) and Caucasian men (73%) showed high prevalence of MetS; ROC analysis determined neck circumference (NC) cut-points of 39 and 35 cm for young and older African men, 32 and 35 cm for young and older African women, 40 and 41 cm for Caucasian men and 34 and 33 cm for Caucasian women. This NC cut-point can be used to determine metabolic syndrome risk in all groups, except in African women; ROC developed waist circumference (WC) cut-points were 91 cm for all African male groups, 84, 81 and 84 cm for young, older and total group of African women. Suggested WC cut-points for Caucasian men were 93 cm for the young group and 97 cm for older as well as total Caucasian male groups, while cut-points for Caucasian women were 87 cm, 79 cm and 84 cm for young, older and total Caucasian women. These WC cut-points were good measures of metabolic syndrome risk in all groups; neither cut-point of WC nor NC could increase the risk of albumin :creatinine ratio. Conclusion: African women as a group present with few MetS risk factors and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans; NC cut-points may be used as an additional anthropometric marker to predict the metabolic syndrome in a South African cohort, but not in African women; WC cutpoints demonstrated to be good predictors of the metabolic syndrome in the same South African cohort, especially among men; WC would seem to be the best measure of MetS risk in all African populations, although NC can also be used for this purpose in all African populations, except in African women.
- Health Sciences