Die verband tussen skryftaalvermoë en intelligensie : 'n diagnostiese ondersoek
Language is a unique human function. It serves as a means of communication and expression of mankind's intellectual, emotional and personality functioning. Through language, interpretation and knowledge are transmitted. Language implies the systematising of inner experience and concepts which lead to the emotional development of man. A hierarchy of various language systems exist of which the auditive and vocal experience of chatter of the infant are the first to develop. The auditive receptive language of understanding then develops, followed by the phase of speech or auditive expressive language. The visual forms of speech are the more advanced forms of speech of man viz visual receptive language or reading, and visual expressive language or writing. The latter develops into a permanent form of preservation of the visual form. These hierarchies form a firm unit. Without the basic auditive forms of language, subsequent visual forms cannot be established. In this research the emphasis falls on the final form of speech (language) viz the visual expressive form of written language. In the bibliographical review, the development is traced from the phase of pre-exercise and writing readiness to the final phase of literacy viz development of the quality of the abstract concrete level of the content of that which is written. Because many factors play an important role in the development of written language, it is the aim and purpose of this dissertation to determine where there is a connection between I.Q. and writing ability. The specific aim of this research is to determine the connection between I.Q. and written language. The hypothesis that a connection between intelligence and literacy does exist, is investigated by means of an I.Q.-test and a standardized literacy test performed on a group of Std. 3 pupils in and around Pretoria and Potchefstroom. A significant correlation between the results of these tests was found. In spite of the fact that there is a correlation between I.Q. and literacy, a great discrepancy between intellectual and literacy abilities often exists, the latter measuring much lower in comparison with the intellectual abilities. As a result of this, factors which determine the development of literacy have been examined. For evaluation of the above-mentioned purposes, use was made of an experimental group and control group consisting of the above-mentioned Std. 3 pupils. The test results arrived at out of this test battery are confirmed in literature which emphasizes certain factors which might affect literacy. Should these factors be underdeveloped or if they malfunction, literacy could be impeded. It is evident from literature and also from the results arrived at in this research that the following factors have a connection with literacy: cerebral dominance, neurological and motor development, visual memory, intelligence, emotional factors, reading ability, speech, child-parent association, participation in sport and other extramural activities and extramural employment of the mother. The hypothesis that a connection between I.Q. and literacy exists is thus accepted. In the case where a child's literacy accomplishments are not in keeping with his intellectual capabilities, it is accepted that one or more of the above mentioned factors have a retarding effect on the child's literacy development.
- Humanities