Die ontstaansoorsake van enkele 'soorte' privaatskole
Swart, Marinda Elizabeth
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Literature study has highlighted the fact that, in most countries all over the world, private schools are being founded by parents who are dissatisfied with the existing public school education. The public school, as an institution, is being queried universally. The nature, aim and essence of these schools, their relevance and task are being questioned and critisized because people believe the schools have failed in their role with respect to society. In the RSA public schools are widely critisized and even condemned and new directions in school education are being advocated. Ifparents and/or communities are dissatisfied with the kind of education the State offers, alternative education can be organized by way of private schools. This research was planned to determine the possible motives leading to the founding of private schools and centred on the question: what are the reasons for the origination of some of these private schools? In order to execute this study and to find an answer to the question, the research was limited to three 'types' of private schools only. An extensive discussion was offered on Rudolf Steiner's Waldorf Schools which originated in Germany, the Summerhill School in Great Britain, and the Christian Day School Movement together with the private Christian Day Schools in the USA and Canada. The method of case studies was employed to indicate that differences in ethnicity, culture, outlook on life and religion can be possible reasons for the founding of different 'types' of private schools. In the first instance an attempt was made by means of the problem-historical method, to determine exactly what the Waldorf Schools, the Summerhill School and the Christian Day School Movement entail and what elements are incorporated in their systems. This was achieved by means of a definition of the educational philosophies of these three private schools. Secondly, a historical and fundamental perspective on the origins and reasons for the founding of these three private schools in question was explored. Special attention was paid to the respective founders and their motives for the founding of these private schools. Thirdly, an attempt was made to illustrate the fundamental educational resemblances and differences between the reasons for founding the Waldorf Schools, the Summerhill School and the Christian Day School Movement. Furthermore, an attempt was made to pin-point the universal, communal and particular and/or contingent reasons for the founding of private schools. Finally, the implications of the reasons for the founding of some of these 'types' of private schools in the USA was considered for application to education in the RSA. Several methods were employed in conducting this research. Investigation was done throughout by means of literature study and the problematic-historical method was employed since this research focused primarily on a culturo-historic problem. The method of case histories was employed for a discussion on the three 'types' of private schools. The fundamental-reflective method in conjuction with the comparative method was applied. The transcendental-critical method was applied in conjunction with the aforementioned methods. Critical appraisal and Scriptural justification in respect of the religious and philosophical viewpoints of each founder was presented. The same principles were applied to the philosophical foundations and educational doctrine of a particular 'type' of private school. The reasons for the founding of the Waldorf School Movement was ascertained by means of literature research (chapter 2). This non-denominational private school system, the second largest in the free world, was initiated in Germany by Rudolf Steiner. In these schools Steiner propogated all his personal principles and convictions. The Waldorf Schools are therefore still based on metaphysical educational principles as laid down by the founder of the school. The origins of Alexander S. Neill's Summerhill School in Great Britain were examined in chapter 3. In contrast to the Waldorf Schools which spread world-wide, the Summerhill School continues to exist in Great Britain only. The reason for this is presumably AS. Neill's radical. liberal, humanistic and ultra progressive attitude towards education which the Summerhill School advocated. In chapter 4 attention was given to the reasons which led to the founding of the Christian Day School Movement which came into being as a Christian alternative private school movement with a phenomenal growth and expansion rate during the past few decades. In contrast to the Waldorf Schools and the Summerhill School, the Christian Day School Movement (CDSM), also known as the Christian Education Movement (CEM), was founded not by a single person but by a group of people. The founding of these private Christian day schools followed in reaction against secular humanism which had taken root in public schools in North America. Chapter 5 subsequently dealt with a fundamental-educational comparison between reasons of origin of the Waldorf Schools, the Summerhill School and the Christian Day School Movement. This was done in order to find a better perspective on the communal and universal as well as the particular and/or contingent reasons for the founding of the private schools in question. Some perspectives on future educational provision in the RSA were also offered. The report on the completed research was concluded with a resume of the findings emanating from the research, as well as some conclusions based on these findings. Some recommendations, as well as suggestions for futher research possibilities, were also offered. In the course of this research, it was established that private schools were founded as a result of the dissatisfaction of the parent body and/or communities with the existing type of education. In these circumstances parents have the right to exercise their parental right and authority to found private schools such as will comply with their needs and demands. Most private schools are founded in times of crises and upheavels in the political, economical and governmental situation of a particular country. Reasons for the founding of each private school will differ because the culturo-historical situation of the country in question and the composition of the population thereof, will determine the particular character of each private school. The motives of the founders are, however, the most important determining factor in the origination of a certain 'type' of private school. The basic religious motive which holds the heart of the founder in thrall, determines the educational theory and practice applied in that private school. As a result of these findings it was concluded that modern public schools were burdened by a host of problems - hence all the criticism and attacks directed at them. These schools are being accused of ignoring the needs and demands of differentiated communities. In considering these complaints and grievances against public schools, the possibility of private schools as alternative education can no longer be ignored. Some 'types' of private schools, however, are founded to promote personal interests. This self and man directed attitude could result in the absolutism of one or more modalities of human existence. To a Christian, the only kind of private school to provide the right 'type' of alternative education, is the one that is guided by the true basic, Biblical religious ground motive of creation, fall into sin and of redemption by Jesus Christ in communion with the Holy Spirit. Consequently it was recommended that, in view of the fact, that the current educational system in the RSA is beset by many problems, and according to certain sources one of these problems is the possibility of integrated public schools for all population groups, and in view of the fact that these all-accommodating schools do not necessarily function according to God's will, serious considerations will have to be given to the founding of private schools by parents from all popUlation groups in the RSA.
- Education