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Die opvoedingsfilosofiese kontinuïteit tussen die sendingonderwys en onderwys vir Swartes na 1953 in die RSA
The problem of this research centres around two questions: Is there continuity between the educational philosophical points of departure basic to missionary education (1800-1953) and those underlying provision of education to blacks after 1953? What is the nature of the continuity, should it exist, and how can it be explained? The aim of this research was therefore to determine whether continuity existed between the educational philosophical points of departure of missionary education (1800-1953) on the one hand and state controlled education for blacks (1953-1990) on the other. The method of abstraction was mainly used to determine the educational philosophical points of departure. The educational philosophical points of departure discussed regarding the missionary era were: the Christian religious ground motive of the missionaries, westernization as point of departure, adaptation within the society including the educational practice, and the role played by race/colour in the educational philosophy of the missionaries. The educational philosophical points of departure discussed regarding provision of education for blacks under state control after 1953 were: the striving towards central control, the preservation of own culture, the role of race/colour and the Christian National character of education. After comparing the educational philosophical points of departure of the two periods, the following conclusions were reached: Regarding the Christian religious ground motive, it was found that there were apparent similarities (continuity) between these two eras. Discontinuity appeared, however, in the concretising of the Christian religious ideal. The "national" element of the Christian-national ideal in education was heavily emphasized by the National Party Government. This ideal as such could not be found in the position taken by the missionaries although the ideal of Christian education was present. This point of disagreement indicates discontinuity within the apparent continuity between the two periods. - Westernization as educational philosophical point of departure was apparently continued after 1953. The aim of westernization before and after 1953 differed, however. The ultimate goal the missionaries had with westernization, was to achieve christianization of the blacks. The aim of the government after 1953 was, however, the education of good citizens. Westernization was implemented as a medium through which the government could reach their goal. - Separate education (government) was put against no differentiation concerning race/colour (missionaries). These two opposing viewpoints already imply discontinuity. A further point of difference (discontinuity) is the putting into practice of education for blacks in separate ways and the fact that the missionaries allowed all race groups into their schools. - The preparation of man for his task in society points to a similarity (continuity) between the two periods. The endeavours of the missionaries were not to estrange the black from his traditional culture. This was also the case with the government as the whole system of separate development was directed towards the development of the different cultures. In the process of maintaining own culture, however, cultural alienation occurred amongst blacks, which is indicative of similarities between the two periods (continuity). This similarity is, however, only apparent, seeing that the aims of the missionaries and the government differed. Therefore discontinuity exists with respect to the ideal of preparing man for his position in society. - Control over education as a consequence of the educational philosophical points of departure of the missionaries was continued after 1953. However, centra 1 control over education for blacks within a formal system didn't exist before 1953. In this respect there is a substantial difference between the two eras. The following conclusion could be drawn from the research: an unambiguous (generalizable) conclusion on continuity between the two systems of educational philosophical points of departure in question here, was not possible. Apparent continuity between the educational philosophical points of departure of the two periods was found. The fact that objectives before and after 1953 differed (were not continued), was also reflected in education. This discontinuity can also be ascribed to the fact that the demands and needs of society before and after 1953 differed. The provision of education for blacks necessarily had to adapt to the differences. There was, therefore, clear forms of substantial discontinuity amidst the formal (and apparent) continuity between missionary education before 1953 and provision of education for blacks after 1953.
- Education