Die ontwikkeling en evaluering van 'n multikulturele psigo-opleidingsprogram ter bekamping van tienerswangerskappe
Botha, Theresa Adrian
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The researcher focused on developing a psycho-developmental programme that could be used as an intervention technique to combat teenage pregnancy. The literature research indicated that general factors contributing to teenage pregnancy could be divided into individual factors and social factors. The following individual factors played a major role towards teenage pregnancy: lack of knowledge, lack of future vision, lack of educational and personal goals and poor academic performance. Social factors such as poor health care services, poor socio-economic condition, unemployment and poverty could be seen as the most common general factors that lead to teenage pregnancy. Family disorientation because of families consisting of one parent, alcohol and drug abuse, and lack of parent support increase the risk to get involved in prostitution and sexual molesting ending up in teenage pregnancy. Psychological aspects such as low self-image, low self-concept, low self-esteem and an external locus of control are also contributing factors to teenage pregnancy. Cultural rituals, myths about sexuality and teenage pregnancy, poor recreational facilities, poor socio-economic condition leading to poverty and increasing the risk of becoming a victim of sexual abuse could be seen as the most common cultural factors which lead to teenage pregnancy. For the purpose of this research a cultural quasi-experimental design was used. Enrolled pupils between fourteen and sixteen years from the following culture groups: white, black (rural), black (urban) and brown were included in this research. These pupils were enrolled students from the following High Schools in Parys: Parys High School, Phehelang High School, Barnard Molekwane High School, Weiveld High School and Sckonkinville High School. All the pupils from the control group, experimental group and development groups were exposed to the completion of a questionnaire that was utilised for pre-testing as well as post-testing. This questionnaire consisted out of three dimensions: knowledge on sexuality, attitudes towards sexuality and myths occurring in connection with sexuality. This questionnaire is available in Afrikaans and Sotho. Only the experimental group was exposed to the psycho-development programme. The results of the research indicated that no differences between the research groups (experimental, development and control groups), age (14 - 16 years) and gender (male and female) groups were reported before the implementation of the psycho-educational programme. Only statistical differences in the cultural groups (white, black and brown) were found: between white and brown in connection with knowledge, attitudes and myths, and between white and black differences in connection with knowledge and myths. Between brown and black differences were found in connection with attitudes. The results after the implementation of the psycho-educational programme showed that no differences were found in connection with age and gender. The experimental group reported a positive change in attitudes towards teenage pregnancy, while knowledge increased in the development group. No changes were reported in the control group. Within the different cultural groups the following results were reported: Knowledge increased in the white group, while within the black group changes in knowledge, attitudes and myths were found. The results for the brown group did not report any change. The following conclusion could be made that the developed psycho-educational programme did have an impact on improving the knowledge and changing the attitudes of the study population in connection with sexuality and teenage pregnancy. The limitations of this research were identified and recommendations were made.
- Humanities