A spending model for biltong hunters
The primary objective of this research was to develop a spending model for biltong hunters in South Africa. Biltong hunting has developed into a popular recreational activity that provides economic benefits for South Africa over the past years and is the single biggest source of income for game farm owners. Biltong hunters spend money on game hunted, accommodation, fuel, hunting gear, equipment, food and beverages. One method to help stimulate hunters to increase their spending on a game farm is to determine and manage the determinants of expenditure which can be managed within a specific model. A spending model can also assist practitioners and researchers to determine the contribution of hunting to an area or country, as spending is the main element to economic impact. Therefore it is important to determine the variables that form part of such a spending model, also seen in the light that hunting contributes significantly to the economy of South Africa and the fact that South Africa has a vast numbers of game and hunting destinations. A spending model includes socio–demographic, travel behaviour and geographic characteristics of the object studied. A study of literature revealed that no spending model exists for biltong hunting. Quantitative research was conducted and a probability sampling method was used. Questionnaires were mailed to the members of the SA Hunters and Game Conservation Association together with their monthly magazine (SA Hunters/SA Jagters) during November/December 2007. An interactive questionnaire was loaded onto the websites of the South African Hunters and Game Conservation Association (SAHGCA), the Professional Hunters Association of South Africa (PHASA) and the national Confederation of Hunting Associations of South Africa (CHASA) during the months of September/October 2007. In total, 676 questionnaires were received back via e–mail, fax and mail. The results of this research show that biltong hunting appeals primarily to a niche market, comprising married Afrikaans males between the ages of 49 and 56 years. The level of education shows that the majority of hunters have either a degree or a diploma and are self–employed. Hunting is a social and cultural activity with most hunters hunting in groups. Hunters go on an average of five hunting trips per annum and spend an average of four days hunting. This analysis will examine the total spending by biltong hunters as well as these variables. Most of the hunters hunt in their province of residence as well as adjacent provinces. Therefore the geographic location of a game farm plays a role in a hunter’s choice of hunting destination as well as the level of their spending. The top five game species hunted by South African biltong hunters are springbok, blesbok, impala, kudu and blue wildebeest. Hunters of these popular species in all cases originate from Gauteng. The preferred species are mainly hunted in two provinces, Limpopo (blesbok, impala, kudu & blue wildebeest) and the Northern Cape Province (springbok). From a game farmer’s as well as marketing perspective, this research makes an important contribution. This is the first research of its kind done in South Africa and this research contributes towards the body of knowledge on the spending behaviour of biltong hunters in South Africa. Contribution of this study to the discipline of Tourism Management The study made the following contribution to the field of hunting research: ? This study is the first to suggest a spending model for biltong hunters in South Africa. ? It increases the understanding of the socio–demographic and travel behaviour attributes of biltong hunters. ? It determines which species generate the greatest income for game farms. Understanding which species generate the greatest income and are more popular than others for hunters will enable game farmers to host these species and, as a result, meet the needs and expectations of hunters, thereby generating more revenue ? As proof of the above, a first article was published in Acta Academica, 42(3):61–85 under the following title: Socio–demographic profile and travel behaviour of biltong hunters in South Africa. ? Different methods used on the same data set, impacts on the outcome of results. For example: Article 1, a regression analysis was conducted using SPSS 16 (using the whole sample pertaining the nine provinces in South Africa); Article 2, firstly, a statistical analysis was conducted using SAS System for windows (SAS) and secondly, a linear regression analysis using the five most important provinces where hunters’ originate from. From the statistical analysis and sections of data used in this thesis different outcomes were obtained. With regards to this study the following discrepancies in results were detected: ? Article 1: Professional and occasional hunters spend more than dedicated hunters. ? Article 2: Dedicated hunters spend more. ? Article 1: Married hunters spend more. ? Article 2: Unmarried hunters spend more. ? Article 1: There is a positive correlation with spending and hunters residing in Gauteng, Free State, North–West and Western Cape. ? Article 2: Hunters residing in Gauteng, North–West and Northern Cape spend less.