|dc.description.abstract||Parkinson's disease is the most recurrent movement disorder and has a radical effect on the lives of people. This chronic neurological disorder is accompanied by a significant social and financial burden with a negative brunt on sufferers' quality of life. The main cause of Parkinson's disease is still unknown, however, the main goal of existing treatment for Parkinson's disease is to improve the patient's quality of life and ability to go about as normally and easily as possible. The general objective of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns of medicine items used in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders associated with Parkinson's disease, as well as the cost associated with the medication in a section of the private health care sector of South Africa. A quantitative, retrospective drug utilisation review (DUR) study was performed according to data obtained from a medicine claims database, of a South African pharmacy benefit management company (PBM) for four consecutive years (i.e. 2005 to 2008). Of all patients on the total database 0.26% (n = 3 993) were Parkinson's disease patients in 2005 (N = 1 509 621), 0.28% (n = 4 423) in 2006 (N = 1 558 090), 0.34% (n = 4 028) in 2007 (N = 1 178 596) and 0.42% (n = 4 072) in 2008 (N = 974 497). Female Parkinson's disease patients were between 56% and 60% of all Parkinson's disease patients from 2005 to 2008. According to age groups, Parkinson's disease patients had the highest representation in age group five (70 80 years) and age group six (> 80 years).
In total the number of Parkinson's disease prescriptions claimed through the PMB accounted for 0.3% from 2005 to 2007 and 0.4% in 2008 of all prescriptions claimed on the database. From 2005 (N = R1 819 865 251) to 2008 (N = R1 785 871 013) Parkinson's disease expenditures represented 0.6% (2005, n = R10 459 835; 2006, n = R11 320 616; 2007, n = 11 040 596; 2008, n = 10 697 155) of the total database's prescription expenditure. The female gender and patients of 70 years and older, presented with the highest number of prescriptions claimed and also with the highest costs within the specific age and gender groups. In 2005 the medicine treatment expenditure for a year's Parkinson's disease treatment was approximately R2 619 R4 179, decreasing with 2% to R2 559 R4 237 in 2006, from thereon increasing with 7% to R2 740 R 4 337 in 2007, decreasing again with 4% to R 2 627 R4 424 in 2008. Medicine item analyses indicated that dopaminergic medicine items were the most frequently used antiparkinson medicine items from 2005 to 2008. Carbidopa/levodopa containing medicine items were most frequently claimed throughout the study period. The average cost per tablet increased from 2005 to 2008, with the most expensive tablets during the four–year study period indicated as, Tasmar® 100 mg tab and Permax® 1 mg tab. The PDD of all antiparkinson medicine items appeared intact. There were only two medicine items that indicated a PDD, above the maximum daily dosage, namely Permax® 1 mg tablets and Tasmar® 100 mg tablets. The frequencies of medicine items prescribed in combination decreased rather drastically with an increase of medicine items per prescription throughout the study period. CNS medicine items prescribed together with antiparkinson medicine items per prescription often occurred. The highest frequencies encountered in combination with antiparkinson medicine items were found to include the antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics and anxiolytic medicine items. A majority of antiparkinson medicine items (53.50%, n = 4 691) had low refill–adherence rates below 90% and were therefore unacceptable. These accounted for 41.62% (n = R16 398 512) of the total cost (N = R39 402 898) of all antiparkinson medicine items included in this study. Only 36.78% (n = 3 225) of antiparkinson medicine items had acceptable refill–adherence rates between 90% and 110%. Those with unacceptably high refill–adherence rates accounted for 9.72% (n = 852) of all antiparkinson medicine items and represented 6.5% (n = R2 574 597) of the total cost. Conclusion: It can be concluded that even though antiparkinson medicine items are used by only a small percentage of the total patient population in a section of the private health care sector of South Africa, they are expensive and bear implications for the patient as well as medical schemes. Good prescribing patterns were adhered to, with the exception of the poor refill–adherence of antiparkinsons medication items.||en_US