Fisieke aktiwiteit en enkele lewenstyl-aspekte as aanduiders van lewensgeluk en gesondheidstatus by manlike bestuurslui : SANGALA-studie
Fourie, Wilhelm Johannes
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Physical activity and some individual lifestyle factors as predictors of optimal health and happiness among male executives: SANGALA-study. The relationships between health, physical activity, lifestyle and the experience of a sense of well-being, happiness or quality of life have been proven extensively and shown to be more important every day (Walker et al. , 1987; McGinnes, 1992; Jordaan, 1998: 18). The singlemost important factor in the prediction of happiness or quality of life however, is, according to some researchers, the frequency with which individuals report to having a positive outlook on life. It can simply be said: "The more people say they feel good, the more often they report being happy." The question arises as to whether physical activity and lifestyle would show any relationship with the experience of happiness. In her study Rabie (1998:90) indicated that respondents had a statistically significantly (≤0.05) higher level of reported happiness or quality of life after a one-year period of participation in physical activity. These results show the significant and direct effect of participation in physical activity on happiness experienced or satisfaction with life. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of physical activity and individual lifestyle factors on health and happiness of the white male executives in general. Secondly to determine if a relationship between happiness and health existed, independent of the influence of lifestyle and participation in physical activity. The third aim of this study was to determine the contributions of each of the seven Belloc and Breslow habits, physical activity and happiness to the variance of health by using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The following questionnaires were used in the present study to evaluate physical activity, lifestyle, health and quality of life respectively, namely: (1) Sharkey's Physical Activity Index (1984), (2) Belloc and Breslow Lifestyle Questionnaire (1972), (3) Wyler et al's Seriousness of Illness Rating Scale (1968) and the (4) Kammann and Flett's Affectometer 2 (AFM) (1983). The subjects of this study were 800 white male executives in South-Africa. Subjects between the ages of 20 and 70 were randomly selected according to guidelines given by the South-African Biokinetic Association. Statistically (≤0.05) significant relationships were found between happiness and participation in physical activity. The results indicate a positive relationship between participation in physical activity and happiness or perceived life satisfaction. The results of this study also indicate that the individuals or subjects classified as "unhappy" have a significantly (≤0.05) lower health status than the respondents identified as "average" or "high" with regard to quality of life and happiness. Perceived quality of life and happiness also showed statistically significant relationships with health independent from lifestyle and physical activity. Perceived happiness or quality of life has been shown to be the primary factor, towards the variance of health status, in the stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that perceived quality of life and happiness is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and good health.
- Health Sciences