|dc.description.abstract||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for systemic control of acute and chronic pain and inflammation (Lin et ah, 2000:1129), but usage problems and side-effects that occur during the post-marketing phase of these drugs are well documented (Thiefin & Beaugerie, 2005:287). Following the demonstration of the value of anti-inflammatory therapy in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (Boardman & Dudley Hart, 1967:268), new NSAIDs appeared on the market (Dieppe et al., 2004:867), and the indications steadily broadened from inflammatory diseases to almost any painful condition. Studies have indicated that NSAID-associated serious upper gastro-intestinal (GI) adverse events result in 103 000 hospitalisations (Bombardier, 2002:4) and 165 000 deaths per year in the United States.
A study in South Africa in 2002 indicated that NSAID utilisation contributed considerably to the total cost of all medicine items from a medicine claim database in the private health care sector (Joubert, 2002:260).
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and cost of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in a section of the private health care sector, and specifically to determine the prevalence, usage and cost of Coxib (Specific cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor) medicine items before and after the withdrawal of Vioxx® from the market in September 2004 (Merck, 2004). Data from two medicine claim databases for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006 (medicine claim database I) and the years 2005 and 2006 (medicine claim database M), were analysed by means of a retrospective drug utilisation review (DUR) study. The usage of Coxib medicine items was determined, and compared for the periods before and after the withdrawal of Vioxx® in September 2004. It was found that between 9 and 10.5 per cent of prescriptions dispensed through both medicine claim database I and medicine claim database M during the study period were NSAID prescriptions. NSAID medicine items on medicine claim database I represented between 3.9 % (R25 942 986) and 2.9 % (R8 073 034) of the total cost of all medicine items claimed from 2004 to 2006. NSAIDs represented 3.1 % (R58 290 412) and 2.8 % (R57 752 267) of the cost of all medicine items claimed through medicine claim database M during 2005 and 2006 respectively, indicating similar trends in the two medicine claim databases. The prevalence of Coxibs on medicine claim database I decreased from almost 20 % (47 938) in 2004 to 8.4 % (13 276) in 2005, but showed an increase again to 10.9 % (12 355) in 2006. The prevalence of both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors, and Coxibs demonstrated a change during 1 September 2004 to 31 December 2004 when COX-inhibitors showed an increase in use, while Coxibs showed and almost equal but opposite trend with a decrease in use. This could possibly be related to perceptions of providers and public with regard to Coxibs and their related safety after the withdrawal of Vioxx® on 30 September 2004 (Merck, 2004) and other Coxibs such as Bextra® (FDA, 2005) in 2005 in USA. It is concluded that most patients who were using Coxibs before the withdrawal of Vioxx®, substituted Coxibs for COX-inhibitors, that are known for their possible gastro-intestinal side-effects.
Recommendations for future research regarding NSAID use were also made, and included an investigation of the usage of Coxibs in different age groups, as well as the combination of NSAIDs with gastro-protective medicines in long-term use.||