Auxiliary verbs as a subcategory of the verb in Tswana
Pretorius, Rigardt Samuel
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The auxiliary verb in Tswana is the focus of this study. An overview of the research that has been done on the auxiliary verb in Zulu, Sotho and Tswana up to now indicates that there are still a number of issues regarding auxiliary verbs in Tswana that need further investigation. From the assembled bibliography it is clear that the auxiliary verb in Tswana has only been touched upon. Only the studies of Swanepoel (1975) and Kriiger (1983) on the auxiliary verbs in Tswana which are exclusively based on linguistic criteria seem to be noteworthy. Before a classification of the auxiliary verb may be attempted, a classification of the verb as word class would be necessary. Insights on concepts like aspect, time and tense and metaphorical mapping, prompted by the development in the study of Bantu languages, have to be utilized in a study on auxiliary verbs. After a discussion of the classificatory principles and criteria of word classes as proposed by Van Wyk (1966), the word classes for Tswana are set out accordingly. It is then shown that the independent verbs, the copulative verbs and the auxiliary verbs are sub categories of the word class verb. Based on this the auxiliary verb is analysed to indicate its sub categories and features. Regarding the origin, meaning and function of auxiliary verbs in Tswana, it is found that they have a metaphorical basis. The semantic values of many auxiliaries in Tswana are derived from verbal counterparts through a process of metaphorical mapping. Certain auxiliaries still show semantic affinity with their verbal counterparts. It is also indicated that this affinity is morphologically and syntactically related to the sub-classes/categories identified in the classification of the auxiliaries. The grammatical categories of the verb are then discussed, and the mutual relationship between auxiliary verbs and mood, tense and aspect is pointed out. It is apparent from the classification of the auxiliary verbs in Tswana that a significant number of them have a semantic significance to logical time and tense. The aspectual values of the complementary verb (in certain instances) in auxiliary verbal groups, in the relative tenses, where the future and past tenses are indicated by the auxiliary verb, are pointed out. To conclude the study, the auxiliary verbal groups are described with respect to their syntactic and valentional features. All auxiliary verbs are then discussed individually regarding the semantic values they display in discourse.
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