Foodborne pathogens and their antibiotic resistance profiles in ready-to-eat meat sold around Johannesburg Central Business District, Gauteng Province
Tshipamba, Mpinda Edouard
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The aim of this study was to identify and characterise foodborne pathogens and their antibiotics resistance profiles in ready-to-eat meat sold around Johannesburg Central Business District, Gauteng Province. To achieve this objective, a preliminary observation study was performed, in order to assess the general practices of street-vended meats in terms of food hygiene and safety using the pre-structure check list form. Data from the observational study was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The study revealed unhygienic practices was more occurred in varying degree in the tree Streets under-study. It was observed during this study that 90.63, 77.42, and 68.89% of vendors were exposing meats to dust and flies. It was also observed during the survey that 94.4, 92.31 and 87.5% of vendors were handling money while serving food, while the presence of stagnant water around vending locations was observed at MTN taxi-rank (21.88%) and Hancock Street (55.56%). The frequency of the presence of stagnant water (P>0.05), exposure of food to flies and dust (P>0.05) and of use of polythene bags for serving food (P<0.05) was not significantly different across the three streets sampled. The results ratter revealed poor hygiene practices were more assessed. A total of 115 samples from street-vended foods that included chicken meat, chicken gizzard, beef intestines, beef head meat and wors were randomly collected across the different streets sampled during the study. Meat samples were analysed for microbial contamination using the conventional biochemical test (Gram staining, catalase test, oxidase test, voges proskauer test, Indole test and !PI-staph) as well as molecular methods based on 16S rRNA (DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing). The total bacterial count of all meat samples was ranged from 9.9 x 102cfu/g to 1.1 x 102cfu/g, while the total coliform counts of all meat samples was ranged from 2.9 x 102cfu/g to 1.0 x 102cfu/g. The mean bacterial count was significantly different across (MTN-taxi rank) and Bree Street (comer Plein Street) (P< 0.05). The mean bacterial count was also significantly different between chicken meat and beef head meat, chicken gizzard and chicken meat, and chicken gizzard and wors (P< 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the mean coliform count across the type of meat (P>0.05). Molecular characterisation revealed the contamination of almost all meat samples with different bacteria such as Kurthia sp (7 .14 % ), Staphylococcus aureus (25. 0% ), Bacillus cereus (10.71%), Macrococcus caseolyticus (14.29%), Bacillus sp (7.14%), Bacillus thurigiens (3.57%), Staphylococcus vitulinus (3.571 %), Bacillus subtilis (3.57%), Planomicrobium glaciei (3.57%), Planococcus antarcticus (3.57%), Citrobacter sp (3.57%), Staphylococcus equorium (3 .57%), Enterococcus faecium (3 .57%) and Enterococcus faecalis (3.57%). This could be a potential public health danger. Some of the isolated bacteria are well-known to be causative agent of food-borne diseases such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus spp. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in food may be considered as an indication of poor handling practices among street vendors and the degree of ignorance relating to proper hygienic practices. Isolated bacteria were evaluated for their antibiotic resistance profiles against eight common antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and sulphonamides), using the disc diffusion method as described by KirbyBauer and the interpretation of the break point zone as specified in the guideline of antibiotic resistance according to the clinical laboratory institute (2011 ). The antibiotic resistance test revealed that most isolates were resistance to 2 or 3 antibiotics tested against such as Kurthia spp was resistant to ampicillin (18%) and tetracycline (29% ), Staphylococcus aureus (ampicillin (20%), tetracycline (50%), sulphonamides (50%), streptomycin (100%), chloramphenicol (50%) and erythromycin (50%), Bacillus cereus ampicillin (29%), tetracycline (17%), and erythromycin (25%). Conclusion: The study revealed the contamination of street foods with different bacteria, and some of them are known to be implicated in food poisoning such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria isolated in this study revealed different rates of resistance to different antibiotics. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance needs to be strengthened on food pathogens. There is, therefore, a need to enforce training in terms of street-vended food. The study also revealed that there is a need for good hygiene practices, proper handling of food, as well as a clean vending place to ensure good quality and safe food.