Die rol van gerigte beelding by gewigsverlies
Gous, Anna Maria Janette
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The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which guided imagery can contribute towards effective weight loss, positive change in body cathexis and the improvement of self-image. Based on a literature survey, the theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on guided imagery were discussed, as were its current uses. A guided imagery programme was devised, using available literature. With regard to obesity and overweight, attention was paid to, inter alia, the clinical picture, etiology, prognosis and treatment thereof. Existing weight-loss programmes and the reasons why they so often fail were also examined. Sixty-four women between the ages of 18 and 47, with body-mass indices of between 23.6 and 33.9, were involved in the empirical investigation. A three-group test-retest design was used. All three groups completed biographical questionnaires and were evaluated during pre-testing and post-testing using the following instruments: The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, The Body Cathexis Scale, The Slade Perceptual Distortion Task, The Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, The lmaginal Processes Inventory and The Human Figure Drawing Technique. All sub-scales of the above instruments were used. The participants' body-mass indices were determined before and after the programme. by a dietician. Group A followed a diet which was worked out and individually adapted by a consulting dietician. Group B attended a guided imagery programme once a week in addition to following the diet, while group C only attended the weekly guided imagery programme. The duration of the programme was 16 weeks. Statistical analysis of the test data revealed that little change had occurred during the investigation. With regard to within-group differences, it was found that group A showed the most alteration and group C the second most. while group B showed almost no alteration. In group A, positive change occurred in respect of weight loss, five aspects of body perception (hip, chest, face, trunk and foot measurements), two aspects of self-concept (self-satisfaction and self-criticism) and one aspect of a body-image disturbance (grooming habits). Group C showed positive changes in two aspects of body perception (trunk and foot measurements), two aspects of self-image (physical self-image and selfsatisfaction) and one aspect of a body-image disturbance (clothing habits). In group B, there was meaningful change only with regard to one aspect of body perception. namely hip measurement. Between-group differences were also minimal. Group A showed better results than B, with reference to two aspects of body perception and to weight loss, although these differences were statistically but not practically meaningful. Group A also performed better in the human figure drawing test than did both groups B and C, when a fat trunk was used as the criterion for obesity. However, when body contours were used as the criterion for obesity, group C did better in this test than groups A and B. The complexity of obesity and overweight came to the fore in this study. Research was made more difficult by a high drop-out rate during the programme. Further research is recommended with regard to the high drop-out rate, apparent external locus of control, poor perseverance and motivation. as well as the thought patterns and belief systems of obese people.
- Humanities