The implications of socio-economic factors for land use management : a case study of City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality- Region 2 RP Mathebula
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South Africa carries a history of spatial segregation based on apartheid planning and land use management and it has adopted (like other countries such as Nigeria and India), foreign spatial planning and land use management regulations which are not tailor-made for the circumstances of the country and therefore not suitable for certain parts of the country. There was a plethora of planning legislation governing the same pieces of land which caused delays, confusion and frustration. Fortunately, the plethora of legislation on spatial planning and land management has been repealed by the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act (16 of 2013). SPLUMA requires that a wall–to-wall land use management scheme be developed for each local municipality. These land use schemes are not without challenges and areas of improvement. On the other hand, South Africa battles with poverty, inequality and unemployment, as stated in the National Development Plan 2030. The study examined the implications of socio-economic factors on land use management through a case study of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Region 2. The study considered the history of South Africa’s spatial planning and land use systems, the existing socio-economic factors in South Africa drilling down to the study area, planning theories and the current legislation governing land use in in South Africa and the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. The study concluded that: * The impact of the historic spatial forms is still evident with adverse outcomes on socio-economic growth; * There are dynamic socio-economic factors in the study area, ranging from rich and poor, literate and illiterate, large and small stand sizes, well located areas close to goods and services and areas in the outskirts of the region; * A blanket approach to land use management is employed in the study area. The same land use management laws are applied throughout the area of jurisdiction of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, despite the dynamic socio-economic factors; * The inequality between the rich and the poor is perpetuated by the current land regulatory processes; * While spatial planning and land use management has its goals and ambitions, the dynamic socio-economic factors dictate the extent to which these goals can be realised. Socio-economic factors influence the degree to which land use management regulations can be implemented and have the power to render land use management ineffective. The study therefore recommended a differentiated approach to land use management which takes into consideration the socio-economic factors; policy review to support a differentiated approach; socio-economic spatial integration and raising awareness to empower communities with knowledge and understanding of the importance of land use management.