Developing a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) framework for the diamond mining industry in Zimbabwe: The case of Mbada Diamonds Company
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a growing concept in Africa and in Zimbabwe in particular. The CSR concept is also disputed and varying in execution and attainment of outcomes in relation to contexts and within different sectors of the economy. As such, in the mining sector of Zimbabwe, the researcher undertook to investigate what the experiences were of the communities adjacent to Mbada Diamonds, a diamond mining company, in rural Marange in the province of Manicaland, Zimbabwe. The research also focused on the perspectives on Mbada Diamonds by the representatives of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), officials of local government, the Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation and the management of Mbada Diamonds. The mining sector in Zimbabwe is presented as having high socio-economic and environmental impacts. As such, mining corporates are expected to carry out CSR activities in order to mitigate risks such as displacements and resettlements as well as poverty. It is submitted that carrying out such activities reduces risks of conflict with local stakeholders and improves income for the company as well as the ability to provide sustainable development through the improvement of community infrastructure. Mbada Diamonds at Marange has been in the limelight for its lack of proper implementation of CSR, which in many ways ignored both the international, regional, and local policy regulatory frameworks of CSR. The study found that Mbada Diamonds did not engage meaningfully with the mine-impacted communities in order to carry out CSR projects in terms of stakeholder engagement principles. The study concluded that Mbada Diamonds did not include in their corporate governance at Marange meaningful human rights practices, CSR vision and mission, CSR management practices, environmental management practices, or the adoption of CSR policies for the benefit of all stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed from the literature and the empiric evidence which outlined the gaps found in both the literature and empiric evidence in terms of CSR benefits, CSR environment, CSR management, CSR policy, and CSR vision and mission. A schematic presentation depicting the development of the conceptual framework was presented.
- Humanities