|dc.description.abstract||A qualitative research approach was followed in this rapid review, followed by the basic research goal to explore existing literature to obtain an answer on the research question. The research question was: What should be the content of training programmes for social workers enhancing attachment in adoption? This question evolves from the practice but was confirmed through literature. Adoption social workers in private practice as well as working at adoption organisations are confronted with emotional and behavioural problems of adopted children which cannot be handled by the adoptive parents. Global statistics show that almost 25% of all adoptions disrupt due to several reasons. A lack of knowledge about the attachment theory could be the explanation why social workers are not equipped to guide the adopting parents in terms of the problems regarding attachment. Adoption is the legal arrangement where the responsibilities and rights of the biological parents of a vulnerable child is terminated and is permanently given to the adoptive parent, facilitated by the additional specialised and in-depth knowledge, skills and ability of the adoption social worker. According to research it shows that the age on which children become available for adoption, globally increases and that adoption of babies currently is the exception. Attachment differs from the biological process of bonding, which is formed pre-birth, and is the emotional process which develops post birth due to the interaction between the primary caregivers and the child, especially in the first three years. Most of these children which became available for adoption at a later age, are staying several months up to several years in child and youth care centres (children’s homes). If the primary needs of the young child are not met, a secure attachment and trust will not develop. Attachment experienced in the early childhood determines all future relationships throughout the life of the child. When these children are adopted, they are often not able to form a secure attachment with the adoptive parents. The attachment theory may provide answers when the adoption social worker guides the adoptive parent in the handling of the issues from the attachment theory. During this rapid review of the literature, a scientific process was followed to search for literature concerning the content of training programmes for social workers enhancing attachment in adoption. Due to the fact that not much scientific literature could be found during this search process, the search was extended to grey literature. This found literature was critically analysed, where-after a synthesis enlightened two major themes with subthemes. The first theme deals with training, with the following sub-themes: attachment theory, twofold development psychotherapy, developmental therapy, adoption competency, integration of adoption competency, the legal framework of adoption, national and intercountry adoption, and parenting programme. The second main theme originated from the synthesis, was adoption and attachment, with sub-themes of: nature of adoption, nature of attachment, service delivery to the biological parent, preparation of the adoptive parent/s, clinical components of adoption, developments in adoption, and adoption competency, adoptability and preparation of the child, preparation of the prospective adoptive parent, and preparation of the child.
After the rapid review of the found literature, the research question could be answered satisfactory. The study succeeded in the aim to show the components which should be included in the training programmes for social workers enhancing attachment in adoption. Recommendations for further research in terms of training programmes enhancing attachment in adoption, could be made.||en_US