Current status and future prognosis of malaria vector control pesticide ecotoxicology and Xenopus sp.
Wolmarans, Nico J.
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Anurans from the genus Xenopus have long been used as standard testing organisms and occur naturally in tropical and sub-tropical areas where malaria vector control pesticides are actively used. However, literature on the toxic effects of these pesticides is limited. This review analyses the available data pertaining to both Xenopus and the pesticides used for malaria vector control in order to determine the pesticides that have the greatest potential to influence amphibian health while also identifying gaps in literature that need to be addressed. Amphibian diversity has shown the fastest decline of any group, yet there are still voids in our understanding of how this is happening. The lack of basic toxicity data on amphibians with regard to pesticides is an issue that needs to be addressed in order to improve effectiveness of amphibian conservation strategies. Meta-analyses performed in this review show that, at current usage, with the available acute toxicity literature, the pyrethroid pesticide group could hold the highest potential to cause acute toxicity to Xenopus sp. in relation to the other MVCPs discussed, but the lack of data cripples the efficacy with which meta-analyses can be performed and conclusions made from such analyses. Several studies have shown that DDT accumulates in Xenopus sp. from malaria vector control areas, but accumulation of other MVCPs in frogs is still largely unknown. Through this review we hope to encourage future research into the field of amphibian ecotoxicology and to promote the use of the Xenopus standard model in order to build comprehensive datasets that may be used in amphibian conservation