Die invloed van 'n intervensieprogram by 9- tot 12-jarige plaaswerkerkinders met ontwikkelingskoördinasieversteuring, geskoei op 'n geïntegreerde benadering
Botha, Jo-Anne Elizabeth
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Controversy still exists among researchers with regard to the most effective intervention methods and the success thereof regarding DCD children. This condition is known to have different underlying causes, which can influence the success of intervention programmes. It is indicated in the literature that intervention of motor difficulties early in the life of the child, can improve motor development and academic achievement and thus contribute to the total wellness of these children. The aims of this study was, firstly, to determine the effect of an intervention programme based on an integrated approach, on 9 to 12 year old farm labourer children with DCD. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, t-testing as well as effect sizes to determine practical significance. A second aim was to determine the relation between underlying sensory-neurological problems and the measure of success reached with the intervention programme. This data was mainly analysed with descriptive statistics and in a qualitative manner. The third aim was to determine the relation between fine motor manipulation skills and behaviour characteristics as assessed by the teacher and the measure of success reached with an intervention programme. This data was also analysed by means of descriptive data and in a qualitative manner. The sample of the investigation, on a farm in the North-West Province, consists of children of farm workers between the ages of 4 and 12 years (n = 36) who were evaluated according to the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) test (Henderson & Sugden, 1992) to determine their DCD status. Eight children (5 girls and 3 boys) were classified with DCD. One girl was identified in the 9 to 10 year old group, and 5 boys and 2 girls (n = 7) were in the 1 l to 12 year old group. These children were also evaluated on the "Sensory-Neurological Screening test" (Auxter et al., 2001), the ''Qwck Neurological Screening test" (Mutti et al., 1978), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor proficiency" (Bruininks, 1978) in order to determine the possible underlying causes of their problems on which the content of the intervention programme was based. The MABC Checklist (Henderson & Sugden, 1992) was used to determine the children's fine motor manipulation skills as well as their behaviour characteristics as assessed by their teachers. The children were tested eight weeks prior to (PREI), and again just before the programme started (PRE2) in order to determine the effect of maturation. Immediately after the intervention programme of 8 weeks, twice a week for 45 minutes was completed, they were tested (POSTI) to determine the effect of the programme, and two months (RTI) and nine months (RT2) later they were re-tested to determine the long term effect of the programme. The intervention programme consists of perceptual-motor, sensory integration and task-specific components. With regard to the first aim of the study, the results indicated that the intervention programme had a positive effect on two of the children, while no effect was noticed on the problems of one, and three of them regressed. The results indicated that with a little modification the intervention programme, based on an integration approach, could have a better effect. The results indicated that each child has different needs, and that the underlying problems might be a reason why the children reacted differently to intervention. However, fine motor manipulation skills increased on the short term, while balance skills showed a long term effect. Further research to determine the reasons of a child's problems, is recommended in order to establish the best method of intervention. With reference to the second and third aim of the study, the comparison of the children who improved (n = 2) with those who regressed (n = 3), indicated that those who regressed after the intervention programme, had more complex underlying sensory-neurological conditions. They also experienced more problems regarding fine motor manipulation skills as well as behaviour. They also showed poor bilateral integration, which was not the case with the other children. Further research concerning the role that bilateral co-ordination plays in DCD is recommended. From the results of this study, it is also recommended that intervention programmes should be conducted on an individual basis in order to assure that the focus is on the child's specific problems, and to ensure that the intervention has a positive effect. Proper assessment of underlying causes must be done in conjunction with the MABC testing, because this will help to determine the method that is selected for intervention.
- Health Sciences