Leisure needs and constraints of deaf adults in the North West Province
Marginalisation of deaf adults in terms of mainstream activities is a worrying concern. Leisure constraints (interpersonal, structural and intrapersonal) have also become an important sub-field of leisure research for people with disabilities, including deaf persons. There is no evidence of a study that explores leisure needs and constraints of deaf adults in the North West Province, South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe leisure needs and constraints faced by deaf adults in the North West Province of South Africa. A qualitative research design with face-to-face interviews, consisting of semi-structured open-ended questions was used in this study. Thirteen severely and profoundly deaf individuals aged 18-34 with no additional disability condition formed part of the study. An experienced sign language interpreter was present during the interviews, to eliminate communication barriers between the researcher and participants. From the transcribed interviews, eight themes were generated: namely leisure meaning, leisure participation activities, leisure activities encountered and experienced, need for diverse activities, intrapersonal, structural and interpersonal constraints, and emotions as a category. The results indicate that in terms of leisure meaning, deaf adults experience leisure as an activity and as a state of mind. Furthermore, deaf adults reported that they participate in, and experience, leisure time physical activity and social activities during their leisure time. Additionally, deaf adults reported that during the leisure activities they encountered and experienced, they had positive and negative experiences. Deaf adults also expressed a need for more diverse activities, wherein, sporting, social and passive activities were mentioned. For intrapersonal constraints, lack of information about leisure, lost hope, paranoia and attitude were reported. Accessibility to leisure space, available leisure time and health related constraints were reported as structural constraints. Interpersonal constraints included lack of leisure resources, communication, family obligation, and attitude. Finally, with reference to how deaf adults felt when experiencing leisure constraints, emotions such as anger, boredom, depression and a lack of self-worth, were reported. It is recommended that leisure service providers and involved stakeholders should put a programme in place, which could reduce the constraints faced by deaf individuals. On the other hand, knowledge of leisure constraints could be acquired through further studies in the North West Province, and South Africa at large. The study concluded that all-inclusive leisure activities, that could lower the levels of vulnerability in deaf persons, should be established. Furthermore, support from government should be a priority in assisting deaf persons, not only at the local level, but also across the broader society.
- Health Sciences 
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