Exploring respect as relational phenomena between members of different generations: a rapid review
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It has been recorded in literature that respect is an essential part of human beings' social lives. This is evident from the various socialisation processes in the lives of people from birth; it is found in ethical codes, and in most relational contexts. Respect has been described by some researchers as part of relational phenomena; it is usually described with regards to the interactions that take place between people. For the purpose of understanding the relational nature of respect this study defined intergenerational relationships as the social interaction and contact between members of different generations. Although a number of studies have focused on respect in intergenerational relationships, the findings of these studies have not previously been synthesised to provide insight into the relational nature of intergenerational respect. Therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a rapid review on literature of respect between members of different generations in an attempt to gain such insight into the relational nature of respect in intergenerational relationships. The review consisted of a systematic and extensive keywords search, using Boolean operators to combine keywords and inclusion criteria. In addition, validated search filters were used to limit the search according to exclusion criteria. After the search process the retrieved studies were screened for their relevance with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Next, the studies included were critically appraised according to international guidelines as indicated in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Quality Criteria Checklists (QCC). As a result, 16 articles, published between 1997 and 2015, were identified for final inclusion in the study; they were analysed and synthesised using a thematic synthesis approach. The review indicates that existing literature describes the relational nature of respect in intergenerational relationships by means of various aspects. The main themes that emerged were as follows: the ethical/moral aspect of respect; the contextual relevance of respect in intergenerational relationships; and lastly the ways in which respect was conveyed in such relationships. These findings shed light on aspects that influence the relational nature of respect in intergenerational relationships. For example, the influence of ethics and morals was identified, as respect needs to be taught to younger generations. Furthermore, the contextual relevance was discussed with regard to the importance of social hierarchy for respecting relationships as well as to the effects of changes of social norms on respect in intergenerational relationships. Finally, the theme that was the most prominent consisted of the different ways in which respect was conveyed as these highlighted the reciprocal interpersonal connection that is part of respecting intergenerational relationships. It was concluded that the relational nature of respect shared between members of different generations consists of various interactions which are influenced by how it is taught to younger generations as well as by the changes in the social norms. Therefore, these findings offer information that may help guide future intergenerational programmes, especially in elderly care settings; thus adding to the enhancement of reciprocal intergenerational respect and possibly stimulating more effective relationships.
- Health Sciences