Darboux transformation and solitons for an integrable nonautonomous nonlinear integro-differential Schrödinger equation
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By modifying the scheme for an isospectral problem, the non-isospectral Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy is constructed via allowing the time varying spectrum. In this paper, we consider an integrable nonautonomous nonlinear integro-differential Schrödinger equation discussed before in "Multi-soliton management by the integrable nonautonomous nonlinear integro-differential Schrödinger equation" [Y. J. Zhang, D. Zhao and H. G. Luo, Ann. Phys.350 (2014) 112]. We first analyze the integrability conditions and identify the model. Second, we modify the existing Darboux transformation (DT) for such a non-isospectral problem. Third, the nonautonomous soliton solutions are obtained via the resulting DT and basic properties of these solutions in the inhomogeneous media are discussed graphically to illustrate the influences of the variable coefficients. In the process, a technique by selecting appropriate spectral parameters instead of the variable inhomogeneities is employed to realize a different type of one-soliton management. Several novel optical solitons are constructed and their features are shown by some specific figures. In addition, four kinds of the special localized two-soliton solutions are obtained. The solitonic excitations localized both in space and time, which exhibit the feature of the so-called rogue waves but with a zero background, are discussed.