Fluorescent polycyclic ligands for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition
Van Dyk, Sandra
Malan, Sarel F.
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In recent years polycyclic compounds have been shown to exhibit pharmacological profiles of importance in the symptomatic and proposed curative treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease). These structures also show modification and improvement of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs in current use. Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecular messenger involved in a number of physiological processes in mammals. It is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from l-arginine and its overproduction could lead to a number of neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to synthesise a series of novel indazole, indole and other fluorescent derivatives conjugated to polycyclic structures for evaluation in NOS assays. NOS is a target system where fluorescent techniques and fluorescently labelled NOS inhibitors can be used for detecting the biophysical properties of enzyme–ligand interactions and thus facilitate development of novel inhibitors of neurodegeneration. This could lead to a greater insight into the neuroprotective mechanism and a possible cure/treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. A series of compounds incorporating polycyclic structures such as 3-hydroxy-4-aza-8-oxoheptacyclo[220.127.116.11.2,100.3,140.4,90.9,13012,15]tetradecane and amantadine as well as suitable fluorescent moieties were selected for synthesis. In the biological evaluation the oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb) assay was employed to determine the activity of the novel compounds at an enzymatic level of NOS. IC50 values of the novel fluorescent compounds were compared to that of aminoguanidine (AG) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), two known NOS inhibitors, and showed moderate to high affinity (IC50 values ranging from 7.73 μM to 0.291 μM) for the NOS enzyme
- Faculty of Health Sciences