The well-being of ministers in South Africa
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The objectives of this research were to investigate ministers' job demands and job resources, to study the relationship between the different job demands and job resources that ministers experience, to investigate the effects of job demands and job resources on minister's burnout and engagement, to investigate the factors impacting on the health and congregational commitment of ministers, to analyse the effects of job demands and job resources on ministers' psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability, to determine whether engagement can mediate the impact that psychological conditions have on levels of congregational commitment and to investigate the effects of religious coping on ministers' psychological conditions. The research method for each of the three articles consisted of a brief literature review and an empirical study. A non-probability purposive voluntary sample of 115 ministers was used. A qualitative design was used in article one to determine the relevant job demands and job resources of ministers. A cross-sectional design, with a survey as the data collection technique was used. The Job Demands-Resources Questionnaire (JD-RQ), 14 items of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), eight items of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), the Work Engagement Scale (WES), 26 items of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Congregational Commitment Questionnaire (CCQ), the Psychological Conditions Questionnaire (PCQ), the Religious Coping Questionnaire (RCQ) and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The statistical analyses were carried out with the help of the SPSS program. The statistical methods utilised in the three articles consisted of descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, principal factor analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analyses. The results indicated that the job demands experienced by ministers were: pace and amount of work and emotional demands and job resources were: growth opportunities, instrumental support, congregational support, autonomy, social support, and job significance. It was found that pace and amount of work correlated positively with emotional demands while, emotional demands correlated negatively with growth opportunities, autonomy, instrumental support, congregational support and social support. Furthermore, pace and amount of work and a lack of growth opportunities and to a lesser extent emotional demands and a lack of congregational support were indicators of exhaustion. Mental distance was best predicted by emotional demands. Growth opportunities, social support and job significance were predictors of engagement. As for health, somatic symptoms were best predicated by exhaustion while depression was found to be predicted by exhaustion and mental distance. Poor social functioning was found to be predicted by exhaustion, mental distance, and low engagement. Affective commitment was found to be best predicted by engagement and low mental distance. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness was best predicted by less emotional demands and more growth opportunities whereas psychological availability was best predicted by a lower pace and amount of work and more social support. Engagement was found to mediate the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and affective commitment but not the relationship between psychological availability and affective commitment. It was also found that engagement was best predicted by psychological meaningfulness and psychological availability, but if engagement were not controlled, engagement and psychological meaningfulness predicted affective commitment. Furthermore, religious coping affected perceptions of pace and amount of work, social support and psychological availability.