Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligands of antidiabetic zinc(II) complexes
Medupe, Thato Tshwaro
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Diabetes Mellitus (DM), one of the most pandemic, universal and life-style related disease across the globe. It is described as a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolisms which may result from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The disease may be classified as Type 1 and Type 2 DM according to the National Diabetes Data Group of the USA and the 2nd World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on DM. The clinical method utilized to treat both types of the disease were reported to be defective: daily insulin injections several times a day are painful and elevate the levels of patient stress especially in young people and synthetic therapeutic agents often have some severe side effects. To this date, many research studies have been conducted to develop a new class of metallopharmaceutical compounds that may be able to minimize or eradicate the problematic situations reported on this clinical method. Zinc(II) metal ion, which has many nutritional and pharmacological roles, along with its complexes has been identified to exhibit insulin mimetic activities. The mono ligand antidiabetic zinc(II) complexes consisting of amino acids such maltol and picolinic acid were reported to exhibit greater in vitro insulin mimetic activities and in vivo antidiabetic activities in diabetic rat animals. Mixed ligands zinc(II) complexes have been lagging behind. In this study, the complexes bis(maltolato)zinc(II), bis(picolinato)zinc(II) and the new complexes maltolato(picolinato)zinc(II), (N-methyl-N-phenyl, N-butyl-N-phenyl)dithiocarbamatozinc(II) and (2,2-bipyridine)[(N-methyl-N-phenyl, N-butyl-N-phenyl)dithiocarbamatozinc(II)] were synthesized and characterized using Infrared and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and microanalysis. In vitro evaluation tests were carried out by making use of C2C12 (skeletal muscle) cell lines. Cells were induced with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and treated with the synthesized zinc(II) coordination compounds. The results of the C2C12 cell line culture plates have shown the presence of insulin mimetic activities and are in line with the published work.