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dc.contributor.advisorMcDonald, A.H.
dc.contributor.advisorDe Waele, D.
dc.contributor.authorSteenkamp, Sonia
dc.date.accessioned2009-10-29T06:41:18Z
dc.date.available2009-10-29T06:41:18Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/2299
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D. (Zoology))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2009.
dc.description.abstractGroundnut is an important cash crop both for commercial and smallscale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on groundnut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of groundnut consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproduction and damage potential. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of host-plant resistance as an effective and economically-feasible alternative management tool for the control of D. africanus on groundnut. Selected groundnut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. PC254K1 and CG7 were identified as resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes is sustainable under field conditions. The resistance expressed by PC254K1 is effective even at high population densities. This genotype consistently produced yields with a low UBS % at all nematode population levels. PC254K1 could therefore be used as a major source of resistance to D. africanus in the development of commercial cultivars. Although the breeding line PC287K5 also maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, its level of resistance does not seem to be as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the groundnut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. The resistance expressed by PC254K1 is not transferred to leaf callus tissue of this genotype, confirming there is no short-cut for screening for resistance to D. africanus. The reproduction and damage potential of D. africanus populations from different geographically-isolated localities in the groundnut-production areas of South Africa was tested under controlled and semi-controlled conditions and were found to be similar to each other. Resistance of PC254K1 to all of the tested populations was confirmed. These results indicate that the presence of this resistant trait in a cultivar developed from PC254K1 should be sustainable over the whole groundnut-production area of South Africa. The absence of D. africanus from pod tissue of PC254K1 confirmed the genotype's resistance. The mechanism of resistance involved may be the inhibition of proper development of this nematode, preventing it to build up to damaging population levels. However, PC254K1 is not immune to this nematode since it does occur in small numbers on this genotype. The resistance trait in PC254K1 is seemingly governed by a number of genes, implying that it will be more durable under sustained pressure by D. africanus populations. Although markers associated with the resistance trait were mapped, they were not closely linked. Three putative qualitative trait loci (QTL's) were identified but markers associated with the resistance trait need to be refined and developed to be breeder-friendly in terms of marker-assisted selection. There are strong indications that CG7, which is a parent of PC254K1, may have more superior levels of resistance to D. africanus than PC254K1. The identification of markers closely associated with the resistance trait might, therefore, be more successful using CG7 in stead of PC254K1
dc.publisherNorth-West University
dc.subjectArachis hypogaeaen
dc.subjectBreedingen
dc.subjectDitylenchus africanusen
dc.subjectGroundnuten
dc.subjectResistanceen
dc.subjectManagementen
dc.titleHost plant resistance as a management tool for Ditylenchus africanus (Nematoda : Tylenchidae) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)en
dc.typeThesisen
dc.description.thesistypeDoctoral
dc.contributor.researchID11844825 - McDonald, Alexander Henrique (Supervisor)


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