Die onderlinge verband tussen fisieke aktiwiteit, lewenstyl en gesondheidstatus by swart manlike uitvoerende amptenare : SANGALA-studie
Vellema, Sjouke Wietze
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Research findings on the physical activity, lifestyle and healthstatus of South African managers have been widely reported in the South African literature (Dreyer, 1991; Jacobs, 1991; Dreyer & Strydom, 1994; Van Zyl, 1995; Dreyer et ai, 1996; Schumann, 1999; Boshoff, 2000; Le Roux, 2000; Laubscher et ai, 2003). Several studies indicate the health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity (Karvonen, 1996; Sharkey, 1997; Gandee et ai, 1998; Kujala et ai, 1998; Rippe & Hess, 1998), as well as living a healthy lifestyle. Thus it becomes clear that companies need to invest in appropriate intervention programmes that address the healthstatus of the executive manager to ensure a healthy growing company. The aim of this study was, firstly, to determine the profiles of physical activity, lifestyles and health status of black male South African executive managers in a corporate setting (see article one). One hundred and forty three (143) black male executive managers from various companies from all over South Africa participated in this study. The physical activity profiles of the respondents were determined by the physical activity index (PAI) as suggested by Sharkey (1997). Health status and lifestyles were determined by using the Seriousness of Illness rating scale of Wyler et al. (1968) and the Belloc and Breslow Lifestyle Questionnaire (1972), respectively. Analysis of the data indicated that the black executive management's physical activity index can be classified as low. This is possibly the result of the national trend of a decline in participation in physical activity associated with urbanization, as well as the result of younger, more inexperienced men working under more pressure as executive managers, as a result of affirmative action. Trends in lifestyle exist which may be indicative of future health deterioration if current lifestyle habits persist. The majority of the managers, however, were found to be in good health and they displayed a moderate lifestyle. Secondly, the participants (143) were analysed to determine whether a relationship existed between physical activity and lifestyle and health status. One-way analysis of variance indicated that highly active black executive managers showed statistically (p<0.05), significant better lifestyle habit patterns than low active participants. A second one-way analysis of variance indicated no significant (p<0.05) differences in health status between low-, moderate- and high activity lifestyle groups. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tuckey post-hoc test were used to indicate the interrelationship between the variables physical activity, lifestyle and health status. Statistically significant (p<0.05) differences with regards to health status were found between high active and low active executive managers following a low or a moderate lifestyle, as well as between highly active managers within the low and moderate lifestyle groups. This study indicates that lifestyle made the most significant contribution to the variance in health status of black executive managers. Thus is becomes clear that intervention programmes should focus on maintaining a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent a decline in the health status of black executive managers.
- Health Sciences