Modelling of galactic and jovian electrons in the heliosphere
Moeketsi, Daniel Mojalefa
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A three-dimensional (3D) steady-state electron modulation model based on Parker (1965) transport equation is applied to study the modelling of – 7 MeV galactic and Jovian electrons in the inner heliosphere. The latter is produced within Jupiter's magnetosphere which is situated at - 5 AU in the ecliptic plane. The heliospheric propagation of these particles is mainly described by the heliospheric diffusion tensor. Some elements of the tensor, such as the diffusion coefficient in the azimuthal direction, which were neglected in the previous two-dimensional modulation studies are investigated to account for the three-dimensional transport of Jovian electrons. Different anisotropic solar wind speed profiles that could represent solar minimum conditions were modelled and their effects were illustrated by computing the distribution of 7 MeV Jovian electrons in the equatorial regions. In particular, the electron intensity time-profile along the Ulysses spacecraft trajectory was calculated for these speed profiles and compared to the 3-10 MeV electron flux observed by the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) on board the Ulysses spacecraft from launch (1990) up to end of its first out-of-ecliptic orbit (2000). It was found that the model solution computed with the solar wind profile previously assumed for typical solar minimum conditions produced good compatibility with observations up to 1998. After 1998 all model solutions deviated completely from the observations. In this study, as a further attempt to model KET observations more realistically, a new relation is established between the latitudinal dependence of the solar wind speed and the perpendicular polar diffusion. Based on this relation, a transition of an average solar wind speed from solar minimum conditions to intermediate solar activity and to solar maximum conditions was modeled based on the assumption of the time-evolution of large polar coronal holes and were correlated to different scenarios of the enhancement of perpendicular polar diffusion. Effects of these scenarios were illustrated, as a series of steady-state solutions, on the computed 7 MeV Jovian and galactic electrons in comparison with the 3-10 MeV electron observed by the KET instrument from the period 1998 up to the end of 2003. Subsequent effects of these scenarios were also shown on electron modulation in general. It was found that this approach improved modelling of the post-1998 discrepancy between the model and KET observations but it also suggested the need for a time-dependent 3D electron modulation model to describe modulation during moderate to extreme solar maximum conditions.