The social impact of arts festivals : a case of the ABSA Klein Karoo National Arts Festival
Motale, Matebello Dieketseng Bethsheba
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The primary objective of this study was to determine the social impact of arts festivals with reference to the ABSA KKNK. This goal was achieved by firstly analysing the social impact phenomena and the role thereof in events tourism. Secondly, a literature study was conducted in order to examine events as tourism products. Thirdly the results of the empirical research were discussed. Lastly conclusions were drawn from the research and recommendations were made with regard to the social impact of events as well as further research. From the literature, social impact was defined as the changes in the norms and values of society that are more apparent in the short-term. It was noted that when tourists vacate to a specific destination, visible impacts are noticed. Events can however provide employment opportunities, promote international peace and pride, as well as promote educational and cultural experiences but it can also lead to increased levels of irritation, crime, drug and alcohol abuse and cultural change. These positive and negative impacts were measured in the questionnaire, as adapted from Fredline and it was therefore the objective of the questionnaire to measure whether the community is positive or negative towards the festival, and whether there were any differences in the social impact when comparing the results of 2006 and 2007. The questionnaires were distributed in the community of Oudtshoorn based on a stratified sampling method followed by a random sampling method. A total of 444 questionnaires were completed, 179 in 2006 and 265 in 2007. On a positive note respondents agreed on the following aspects in 2006 and 2007: the public money spent on the ABSA KKNK would be better spent on other things, media coverage of the ABSA KKNK promotes development in Oudtshoorn and the basic skill base for event management in Oudtshoorn has increased. On a negative note respondents agreed on the following aspects in 2006 and 2007: ordinary residents get no say in the planning and management of the festival and traffic congestion is a problem. The positive impact has increased from 2006 to 2007. Two factor analyses were performed to determine the social impact factors in order to determine differences in the social impact of 2006 and 2007. The first analysis resulted in nine factors which accounted for 56.85% of the total variance and were labeled as: community issues, damage to the environment, community activities, local business and community opportunities, pricing, public facilities, traffic, disturbances and visitors. The second analysis resulted in three factors that accounted for 44.22% of the total variance and were labelled according to similar characteristics which included: community opportunities, community problems and community image. Means and standards deviations were determined after which the effect sizes were determined to explore the differences between the social impact for 2006 and 2007 on the dimensions of the various factors as determined in the factor analysis. It is clear that a small effect (0.2-0.4) exists between 2006 and 2007 concerning local business opportunities (0.25), pricing of goods (0.24), community activities (0.35), public facilities (0.39) and community activities (0.48). There were therefore no huge differences in the social impact between 2006 and 2007.