Die verband tussen studie-oriëntasie, metakognisie en wiskundeprestasie by graad 7-leerders
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The poor mathematics achievement of South African learners is a great shock and reason for concern in our country. The question is asked why the learners achieve so poorly and whether something can be done to improve learners’ mathematics achievement. Research has shown that the field of study orientation is a primary factor for learners’ mathematics achievement. A positive study orientation towards Mathematics has a great influence on the positive achievement of learners in Mathematics. The use of metacognition has also been found to improve learners’ mathematics achievement and their ability to solve problems. It has been decided to find the relationship between learners’ study orientation and metacognition and to determine what the influence of the relationship is on learner's mathematics achievement. Learners’ study orientation is identified as six fields that have an influence on learner's mathematics achievement. The fields are learners’ study attitude in Mathematics, Mathematics anxiety, study habits in Mathematics, problem solving behaviour in Mathematics, study milieu (social, physical well-being and classroom atmosphere) in Mathematics and information processing in Mathematics. Metacognition is described as the learners’ thoughts concerning their own thinking and is divided in two separate components: • Metacognitive knowledge: it addresses the questions of what you know, how you think, when and where to use certain strategies. Metacognitive knowledge consists of strategic knowledge, knowledge of cognitive tasks and self-knowledge. • Self-management: self-management is 'metacognition in action' and learners use it to effectively apply the metacognitive knowledge. Self-management consists of prediction, planning, monitoring and evaluation. The study population comprise of Grade 7-learners in the Potchefstroom district. The schools that participated in the study serve learners from different socioeconomic backgrounds (ex-Model C, multicultural, township, farm and learners living in the township but their school is in an affluent environment. The sample was chosen from an expedient sample. The study consists of a quantitative research as well as a qualitative research. The quantitative research was conducted by making use of the study orientation questionnaire in Mathematics, a metacognitive questionnaire and a mathematics achievement questionnaire for Grade 7. The average of the high achievement learners as well the low achievement learners were determine, intercorrelations between the variables and a regression analysis has been done to find out which fields is a good predictor for mathematics achievement. The qualitative research was conducted, using interviews. The Mathematics teachers (involved in the learner's teaching and learning), high achievement learners and low achievement learners where interviewed. The interviews were interpreted and combined with the qualitative research findings. The study found that both a positive study orientation and use of metacognition in Mathematics can enhance learners’ mathematics achievement. High achieving learners are better orientated towards Mathematics and make use of metacognition in a greater extent than learners that achieve poorly in mathematics. In general learners have a positive attitude towards Mathematics and their study milieu is positive. It has been found that learner's orientation toward study habits is weak and their problem solving behaviour is weak also, especially with solving non routine problems. Out of the correlations it was found that learners which experience a high level of mathematics anxiety and a negative study milieu make less use of metacognition than learners that experience less mathematics anxiety and have a positive study milieu. There is a relationship between metacognition and study-orientation and this relationship has an influence on learners’ mathematics achievement. Recommendations were made concerning metacognition and study orientation. In order to enhance learners’ mathematics achievement, it is necessary to improve their use of metacognition and study orientation towards mathematics
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