The charge-sign dependent effect in the solar modulation of cosmic rays
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The centennial anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays was in 2012. Since this discovery considerable progress has been made on several aspects related to galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is known that they encounter a turbulent solar wind with an imbedded heliospheric magnetic field when entering the Sun’s domain. This leads to significant global and temporal changes in their intensity inside the heliosphere, a process known as the solar modulation of cosmic rays. The prediction of a charge-sign dependent effect in solar modulation in the late 1970s and the confirmatory observational discoveries can also be considered as a milestone. A short review is given of these predictions based on theoretical and numerical modelling work, the observational confirmation and related issues.