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dc.contributor.authorMente, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorKruger, Lanthe
dc.contributor.authorO’Donnell, Martin J.
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-23T08:02:40Z
dc.date.available2015-11-23T08:02:40Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationMente, A. et al. 2014. Validation and comparison of three formulae to estimate sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine compared to 24-h measures in 11 countries. Journal of Hypertension, 32(5):1005-1015. [http://journals.lww.com/jhypertension/Abstract/2014/05000/Validation_and_comparison_of_three_formulae_to.13.aspx]en_US
dc.identifier.issn0041-4751
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/15174
dc.identifier.urihttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24569420/
dc.description.abstractBackground and objectives: Although 24-h urinary measure to estimate sodium and potassium excretion is the gold standard, it is not practical for large studies. We compared estimates of 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine (MFU) using three different formulae in healthy individuals. Methods: We studied 1083 individuals aged 35–70 years from the general population in 11 countries. A 24-h urine and MFU specimen were obtained from each individual. A subset of 448 individuals repeated the measures after 30–90 days. The Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT formulae were used to estimate urinary excretion from a MFU specimen. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between estimated and measured sodium excretion was higher with Kawasaki (0.71; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65–0.76) compared with INTERSALT (0.49; 95% CI: 0.29–0.62) and Tanaka (0.54; 95% CI: 0.42–0.62) formulae (P <0.001). For potassium, the ICC was higher with the Kawasaki (0.55; 95% CI: 0.31–0.69) than the Tanaka (0.36; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.60; P <0.05) formula (no INTERSALT formula exists for potassium). The degree of bias (vs. the 24-h urine) for sodium was smaller with Kawasaki (+313 mg/day; 95% CI: +182 to +444) compared with INTERSALT (-872 mg/day; 95% CI: -728 to -1016) and Tanaka (-548 mg/day; 95% CI: -408 to -688) formulae (P <0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Similarly for potassium, the Kawasaki formula provided the best agreement and least bias. Blood pressure correlated most closely and similarly with the 24-h and Kawasaki estimates for sodium compared with the other two formulae. Conclusion: In a diverse population, the Kawasaki formula is the most valid and least biased method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion from a single MFU and is suitable for population studies.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherWolters Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams & Wilkinsen_US
dc.subject24-h urineen_US
dc.subjectblood pressureen_US
dc.subjectformulaen_US
dc.subjectinternationalen_US
dc.subjectmorning fasting urineen_US
dc.subjectpotassium excretionen_US
dc.subjectreproducibilityen_US
dc.subjectsodium excretionen_US
dc.subjectvalidationen_US
dc.titleValidation and comparison of three formulae to estimate sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine compared to 24-h measures in 11 countriesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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