Impact of selected herbal products on intestinal epithelial permeation and metabolism of indinavir
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Patients on anti-retroviral (ARV) drug treatment are sometimes simultaneously taking other prescribed drugs and/or over-the-counter drugs and/or herbal remedies. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug or herb-drug interactions can occur in these patients, which might be synergistic or antagonistic in nature leading to increased or decreased bioavailability of the ARV. Consequences of bioavailability changes may either be adverse effects due to increased plasma levels, or lack of pharmacological responses due to decreased plasma levels. The aim of this study is to determine if pharmacokinetic interactions exist between selected commercially available herbal products, namely Linctagon Forte®, Viral Choice® and Canova® and the ARV, indinavir, in terms of transport and metabolism in cell culture models. Bi-directional transport of indinavir was evaluated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in four experimental groups, namely indinavir alone (200 μM, negative control group), indinavir in combination with Linctagon Forte®, indinavir in combination with Viral Choice® and indinavir in combination with Canova® at three different concentrations. Verapamil (100 μM), a known P-gp inhibitor, was combined with indinavir in the positive control group. Samples obtained from the transport studies were analysed by means of a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values were calculated from the transport results in both directions and the efflux ratio (ER) values were calculated from these Papp values. The metabolism of indinavir was determined in LS180 cells in the same groups as mentioned for the transport study but with ketoconazole (40 μM), a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the positive control group. Indinavir and its predominant metabolite (M6) were analysed in the metabolism samples by means of liquid chromatography linked to mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) to determine the effect of the herbal products on the biotransformation of indinavir. The BL-AP transport of indinavir increased in a concentration dependent way in the presence of Linctagon Forte® and Viral Choice® when compared to that of indinavir alone (control group). Canova® only slightly affected the efflux of indinavir compared to that of the control group. Noticeable increases in the efflux ratio values of indinavir were found for Linctagon Forte® and Viral Choice®, whilst the effect of Canova® on the efflux ratio value was negligible. There was a pronounced inhibition of the metabolism of indinavir in LS180 cells over the entire concentration range for all the herbal products investigated in this study. These in vitro pharmacokinetic interactions indicate the selected herbal products may affect indinavir’s bioavailability, but the clinical significance needs to be confirmed with in vivo studies before final conclusions can be made.
- Health Sciences