Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations among South African black Generation Y students
Zeeman, Riané Cherylise
MetadataShow full item record
With the South African retail industry being a major and attractive industry, marketers and retailers are pressured to obtain and maintain a competitive advantage by developing marketing strategies that appeal to various consumers. Retailers need to focus on satisfying consumers’ needs, as well as offering a full shopping experience. Shopping entails more than the mere selection of products. Consumers’ motivation or driving force behind the act of shopping is embedded in satisfying internal needs. These motivations are grouped into two collections, namely hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations. Consumers driven by hedonic shopping motivations are interested in the shopping experience, as well as the experiential and emotional aspects thereof. However, consumers driven by utilitarian shopping motivations are goal-oriented and concerned with the task-related value and the functional aspects of shopping. Marketers and retailers may use consumer-shopping motives to divide the market into segments and develop strategies to target specific segments. Published literature on the consumer behaviour of the South African black Generation Y cohort is limited and an absence occurs with reference to the shopping motivations of this cohort. In the South African context, individuals born between 1986 and 2005, labelled Generation Y, account for 38 percent of the total South African population, and the black Generation Y individuals represent 83 percent of the total Generation Y cohort. Individuals within the black Generation Y cohort attaining tertiary qualifications are likely to represent the future ‘Black Diamonds’, enjoying higher earnings and a higher social status, which together is likely to make them opinion leaders amongst their peers. For that reason, the black Generation Y student cohort is an exceptionally attractive market segment, and it is critical for retailers and marketers to understand their shopping behaviour and motivations in order to develop effective marketing strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine South African black Generation Y students’ utilitarian and hedonic shopping motivations. The target population of this study comprised full-time undergraduate black Generation Y students; aged between 18 and 24 years and enrolled at South African registered public higher education institutions (HEIs). The sampling frame comprised the 23 registered South African public HEIs. A non-probability judgement sample method was utilised to select one traditional university and one university of technology in the Gauteng province, from the sampling frame. For this study, a convenience sample of 600 black Generation Y students enrolled at these two South African HEIs during 2013 was drawn. The relevant primary data was obtained by means of a self-administered questionnaire, which was hand delivered to the contacted lecturers at each of these two HEIs. These lecturers distributed the self-administered questionnaire during one lecture period. This questionnaire requested the participants to indicate on a six-point Likert scale the level of their agreement or disagreement on 26 items designed to measure their utilitarian and hedonic shopping motivations, as well as to provide certain demographic data. The findings of this study indicate that within the hedonic subscale, black Generation Y students found value and adventure shopping to be the strongest motivators for shopping. Within the utilitarian subscale, black Generation Y students found achievement to be the strongest motivator for shopping. Previous research found gender to have an influence on the hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations of consumers. This study confirms previous findings where statistically significant differences were found between the shopping motivations of male and female black Generation Y students. The study found significant differences concerning the first-, second- and third-year black Generation Y students’ hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations. Insights gained from this study will help both marketers and retailers understand the current black Generation Y consumers’ motivations for shopping with reference to hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations.