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The relationship between psychological well-being and academic performance of university students
Van der Merwe, Nadia
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Emotional intelligence is a relatively new and growing area of behavioural research, which stimulated the imagination of the general public, the commercial world and the scientific community. Only a few studies have been done on the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, optimism, life satisfaction and self-efficacy, as well as the validity and reliability of these measures on a sample of university students. Further objectives included conceptualising emotional intelligence, optimism, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, wellbeing and academic performance and determining the validity and reliability of the 33-item measurement of emotional intelligence (SEIS) for a sample of potential future employees in economical sciences professions. The results obtained from this study will help organisations determine the level of emotional intelligence and well-being of their future workforce, in order to implement certain interventions to improve it. A cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. A sample of 341 students was used for this study, but only 324 of the responses could be utilised. The participants (N = 324) were students within the field of economics. 1 17 Students were from the Vanderbijlpark Campus and 207 students were from the Potchefstroom Campus. The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, Life Orientation Test Revised, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the General Perceived Self Efficacy Scale were administered. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the statistical data. The results obtained from the SEIS proved this measuring instrument to be valid and reliable. By using the multiple linear regression analysis approach, a six dimensional factor structure for emotional intelligence among students emerged, which supported earlier conceptions in this regard. The results showed that Interpersonal factors consisted of Positive Affect, Emotions-Others, Happy Emotions, Emotions-Own, Non-Verbal Emotions and Emotional Control. Intrapersonal factors consisted of Self-Efficacy, Life Satisfaction and Optimism. Self-efficacy, Life satisfaction, Optimism, Pessimism, Positive Affect, Emotion-Others, Happy Emotions, Emotion-Own, Non-Verbal Emotions and Emotional Control, predict 16% of the variance in Academic Performance. Significant predictors of Academic Performance are Life Satisfaction, Optimism, Pessimism and Emotions-Others. A second order factor analysis was done on the factors of the SEIS, LOT-R, GPSES, and the SWLS. Two factors were extracted explaining 50,95% of the variance. These factors were called Interpersonal Factors and Intrapersonal Factors. On the Intrapersonal Factor, the following factors loaded: Emotions-Others, Happy Emotions, Emotions-Own and Non-Verbal Emotions. Self-Efficacy, Life Satisfaction and Optimism, Positive Affect and Emotional Control loaded on the Interpersonal Factor. It is evident from the above that psychological well-being consisted out of two dimensions namely Interpersonal and Intrapersonal aspects. Positive Affect is significantly positively related (large effect) to Optimism and Self-Efficacy and significantly positive related (medium effect) to Emotions-Others, Happy Emotions, Emotions-Own, Non-Verbal Emotions and Emotional Control. Emotions-Others is significantly positively related (medium effect) to Happy Emotions, Emotions-Own and Self-Efficacy. Happy Emotions is significantly positively related (medium effect) to Emotions-Own, Non-Verbal Emotions, Emotional Control, Optimism and Self-Efficacy. Emotions-Own is significantly positively related (medium effect) to Non-verbal Emotions, Emotional Control, Optimism and Self-Efficacy. Non-verbal Emotions significantly positively related (medium effect) to Emotional Control and Self-Efficacy. Emotional Control significantly positively related (large effect) to self-Efficacy and significantly positively related (medium effect) to Optimism and Life Satisfaction. Optimism significantly positively related (medium effect) to Life Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy. Pessimism is significantly negatively related (medium effect) to Life Satisfaction and Self Efficacy. Life satisfaction is significantly positively related (medium effect) to Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance.