Het dramatiseren van Bijbelse geschiedenissen door jeugdigen : een pedagogisch–didactische bijdrage met bijzondere aandacht voor het schooldrama van de 16e eeuw
MetadataShow full item record
Dramatization is a form of acting in which the player experiences the dramatic scene in a state of great tension. It implies imitation, identification and speech in dialogue form. Many peoples knew from of old the combination of cult and play. The cultic performances were considered to be effective actions: in that way they thought to receive good gifts from their gods and to be able to ward off bad influences. Just as ancient classical drama has developed from the religion of the Greeks, Christian drama arose from the liturgy of the Roman Catholic church. Similar to what was going on outside the church in the way of dramatic performances, the church itself very early proceeded to perform liturgical and semi-liturgical plays. At the outset dressed-up priests were the actors and they made use of liturgical dialogues. All important is the intrusion of the trope. To the original text of the Bible such additions were made as to produce a really topical, lively conversation. Here lie the beginnings of the liturgical drama or play which, first inside the church, later extra-mural, played such an import ant part in the religious education of the masses: At first the liturgical plays took as their basis the Redemption of the world as accomplished by the Nativity, the Passion and the Resurrection. These crucial facts of sacred history were repeated as a dramatic play. The basic pattern of this repetitional character is to be found in the Mass or in the sacrifice of the Mass. This repetitional character is contrary to the Word of God. In this connection we would refer to e.g. the redemptive-historical testimony of the Epistle to the Hebrews. As the centuries passed by the number and size of the liturgical plays increased. Dramatic practices were increasingly secularized. Dramatization was taken to be an excellent illustrative method of teaching people. We are here dealing with a motive for conversion tactics. Because the dramatic play imposes its own exigencies it is obvious that the contents of the biblical events underwent drastic changes. The biblical play developed into popular entertainment. Because medieval schools freely adopted the subjects taught by the Classics and their methodology, these schools, too, were familiar with dramatization as part of their curriculum (notably the grammar schools). In the 16th century the performance and the reading of biblical and classical plays had become part and parcel of school teachings. Reformers, Luther in the first place, were great sticklers for an intensive use of school drama. They considered acting pre-eminently as a form of moral and religious education. Proponents of the Reformation looked upon it first and foremost as a means to bring home scriptural knowledge in a fascinating way to people and as a vehicle to polemize with Rome. As, influenced by Humanism, the formative element increased, the element of devotion decreased and school drama tended towards popular comedy. In those regions were the Reformation had obtained a form footing arose an extensive school drama with biblical plays. Public performances of these plays should also be seen as a means of publication in those days. School drama flourished till about 1620. From Holland the Brethern of the Common Life have played an important part in its development. In Holland school drama reached its peak at about 1530. The spiritual battle of the 16th century was reflected in it. This is evidenced especially by the parable of The Prodigal Son. Dramatic representation of biblical events may be considered as a method of teaching with a character of its own. From a psychologic-didactic point of view it is a method of learning by imitation, identification, memorizing, conversation, self-discovery, play and (often) free expression. It was especially Hausmann who saw learning and dramatization as a unity. According to him innate dramatic instinct of .mankind is a primitive didactive phenomenon.• Advocates of educational reforms• in the 20th century emphasize the great educational significance of play and free expression for young people. There grows a play-psychology and pedagogy which also influences the methodology of religious teaching at schools and in youth clubs. The underlying motives for present-day recommendations of biblical plays are of a psychologic-didactic nature. In the valuation of this dramatic teaching method for religious education we consciously oppose the "child-centred" notions of R. Goldman and his method of investigation. He who wants to preserve the peculiar character of the Word of God, who does not want to take away from it, nor add to it, should not base his valuation on that which is present of psychic data in the child. (experiences, desires, phantasies, interest in play). In the dramatic representation of biblical events there is no getting away from interfering with the character of redemptive history. The burlesque, identification, and an actualizing presentation run counter to and undermine the redemptive-historical and Christ-centred character of the Word of God, With all appreciation that could be ascribed to play-activities in education we hold that their application in religious teaching for young children will only be an obstacle to the proper understanding of the Word of God. Further reflection on the arguments in favour of biblical plays led us to a dissenting vote. In the history of the church the "dumb" images, which were credited with the power to edify the masses, were opposed by the Protestants. The living proclamation of the Gospel is likewise at variance with dramatic ally "speaking" images. He who wants to play take heed lest he forfeit the Word of God.
- Education