Die optimalisering van leer by skoolbeginners deur middel van 'n verrykte klasmusiekprogram
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The TED syllabus prescribes classroom music as a compulsory subject for Grade I. This study wished to determine whether an enriched class music programme can afford more opportunities for optimisation of learning to beginners and enable them to integrate more easily into the formal teaching situation. By means of initial reading, information was gained on learning ability, intelligence, giftedness, creativity and lower giftedness. The use of information of child play and drawing applicable in the education of the young child was also examined. Then problems which beginners may experience when beginning with formal education, were identified. This includes factors which pupils personally experience, like pre-school environmental influences, individual giftedness, as well as the demands set down by schools at the beginning of formal education. Furthermore a comparable study was made of the following educators: Gagne, Piaget, Bruner, Bloom and Gesell. The musical education methods of three most influential music educators namely Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff were also investigated. Many tangencies between the two groups were determined, especially the similarities in the planning and presentation of an enriched class music programme. With this as background, an enriched programme was developed which should afford alf pupils the opportunity during the first year to learn successfully despite individual shortcomings which may occur. The enriched programme was offered to all Grade I pupils of a primary school for six school months. The pupils were beforehand divided randomly into an experimental and control group. The enriched programme was offered to the experimental group only, while the control group followed the ordinary syllabus. The contents of the enriched programme was, beside musical education, aimed at the refinement of the pupils' sense of perception, with special stress on auditory aspects. Throughout, stress was laid on the development of command of the mother tongue. Finally perceptual-motor skills, with stress on auditory-motor skills, were noted. Before the programme was begun, an IQ test confirmed that both groups had more or less the same intelligence to show progress at school. A school readiness test was devised which the pupils took before and after the programme. The pupils' general school achievement was also examined before and after. The results of the school readiness test showed that sensory perception and language ability visibly improved. Results of school achievement indicated that Afrikaans reading showed a statistically marked improvement (with a P-value of 0,01 ). All other subjects showed significant improvement. In Mathematics the control group maintained a notable backlog in comparison with the experimental group. The same in English but to a lesser degree than in Maths. Personal assets which among others could be noted after offering the programme, were that their knowledge of music as well as awareness of sound and knowledge of it were extended. It sharpened their listening aptitude which enabled them to react with more attention in the classroom situation. Their general work attitude was markedly positive. All in the group were prepared to take part in group activities. Their adaptability was thus improved. In conclusion: a Christian educator who considers music as a gift of God, should use the practical possibilities in the education of young children. The value of such implementation was proved in this scientific project. This approach can optimise learning in school entrants.
- Education