Enkele persoonlikheidsaspekte by drie groepe eerstejaarstudente
Röth, Heinrich Wilhelm
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MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY - At present there is a growing need for empirical information in the study and career counseling process especially with regard to the statistical comparison of successful students' aptitudes. interests and personality profiles in various courses. There also is a growing demand for data regarding the predictive validity of the psychometric instruments regularly used. In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of the counseling process mean profiles for three groups of first year students on the grounds of their mean scores on three psychometric, instruments were drawn up and were compared with each other on a statistical basis. Secondly the predictive validity of each instrument as well as for two instruments combined was investigated. AIM OF THE RESEARCH - Firstly the aim of this study was to compare the three experimental groups' mean interest aptitude and adaptation profiles as measured by the 19 Field Interest Inventory (19 FII), the Senior Aptitude Tests (SAT) and the PHSF Relations Questionnaire on a statistical basis with each other. in order to detect statistical differences among the profiles of the three groups. The second aim of this study can be put as follows: - To determine the predictive value of each variable (psychometric instrument) with the criterion (average academical achievement); - To determine the relation between two of the variables, namely the 19 Field Interest Inventory and the Senior Aptitude Tests. combined and the criterion by means of the multiple correlation technique. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION - In the first place, a study of the relevant literature was undertaken, concerning the concepts of interest, aptitude and adaptation. Among these attention was especially focused on some definitions as well as the measurement of each concept. The psychometric instruments used in this research was discussed thoroughly regarding their development, contents, reliability and content and predictive validity. The sample used in this study consisted of 93 first year students assigned to the groups in the following way: 33 BA(Communication), 30 BA(Education) and 30 B(Law) students. Statistical operations were done for the total group by means of a computer. This included the drawing-up of mean profiles on each variable for each group as well as the statistical comparison of these profiles with each other. In the second place multiple regression was performed. CONCLUSIONS - With regard to the first aim of this study, the following can be concluded: - The experimental groups' mean interest profiles differed statistically from each other on the following fields of the 19 FII, namely FII 4 (Historical), FII 5 (Service), FII 7 (Sociability), FII 8 (Public Speaking), FII 9 (Law), FII 10 (Creative Thought), FII 13 (Practical Female) and FII 15 (Business). - The experimental groups' mean aptitude profiles differed statistically from each other on one test of the SAT and that is SAT 1 (Verbal Comprehension). - The experimental groups' mean adaptation profiles differed statistically from each other on one component of the PHSF, namely PHSF 9 (Sociability-S). With regard to the multiple regression analysis, the following can be concluded: - With regard to aptitude, three tests of the SAT with the best regression weights were selected for the BA(Communication) group by means of Mallows' CP-regression analysis, namely Disguised Words, Comparison and Pattern Completion. For the BA(Education) group four tests of the SAT with the best regression weights were selected, namely Verbal comprehension, Calculations, Figure Series and Spatial 3-D. Three tests of the SAT with the best regression weights were selected for the B(Law) group, namely Calculations, Pattern Completion and Memory (Paragraph). - With regard to interest, four fields of the 19 FII with the best regression weights were selected for the BA(Communication) group by means of Mallows' CP-regression method, namely Public Speaking, Science, Numerical and Travel. For the BA(Education) group six fields of the 19 FII with the best regression weights were selected, namely Law, Creative Thought, Business, Clerical, Nature and Sports. Only one field with the best regression weight was however selected for the BA(Law) group, namely Business. - With regard to adaptation, three components of the PHSF Relations Questionnaire with the best regression weights were selected for the BA(Communication) group by mean of the same method, namely Health, Sociability-S and Formal Relations. For the BA(Education) group two components were selected, namely Self-control and Nervousness. Four components of the PHSF with the best regression weights were selected for the B(Law) group, namely Health, Personal Freedom, Moral Sense and Desirability Scale. As for the last aim of this study, namely the determination of the relation between the 19 FII and the SAT combined, and the criterion, the following can be concluded: With regard to the BA(Communication) group, four predictors with the best regression weights were statistically selected, namely one test of the SAT (Comparison) and three fields of the 19 FII (Science, Numerical and Travel). - As far as the BA(Education) group is concerned, four predictors with the best regression weights were statistically selected, namely two tests of the SAT (Verbal Comprehension and Spatial 3-D) and two fields of the 19 FII (Social Work and Creative Thought). With regard to the B(Law) group, a combination of twelve predictors with the best regression weights were selected, namely four tests of the SAT (Calculations, Figure Series, Spatial 2-D and Memory Symbols ) and eight fields of the 19 FII (Fine Arts, Performing Arts, Historical, Service, Creative Thought, Clerical and Travel). RECOMMENDATIONS - It is recommended that more extensive research be undertaken with successful students in every course of study regarding their interests, aptitudes, adaptation and personalities, in order to detect their similarities and differences. In order to increase the reliability of such findings, it is also recommended that the size of the experimental groups be increased. Research should also be undertaken concerning the selection and composition of relevant test-batteries in order to achieve optimum prediction of academic achievement. However, the selection of psychometric tests as used in this study should be extended with at least a personality test.
- Humanities