Numerical methods for pricing American put options under stochastic volatility
The Black-Scholes model and its assumptions has endured its fair share of criticism. One problematic issue is the model’s assumption that market volatility is constant. The past decade has seen numerous publications addressing this issue by adapting the Black-Scholes model to incorporate stochastic volatility. In this dissertation, American put options are priced under the Heston stochastic volatility model using the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in combination with the Projected Over-Relaxation method (PSOR). Due to the early exercise facility, the pricing of American put options is a challenging task, even under constant volatility. Therefore the pricing problem under constant volatility is also included in this dissertation. It involves transforming the Black-Scholes partial differential equation into the heat equation and re-writing the pricing problem as a linear complementary problem. This linear complimentary problem is solved using the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in combination with the Projected Over-Relaxation method (PSOR). The basic principles to develop the methods necessary to price American put options are covered and the necessary numerical methods are derived. Detailed algorithms for both the constant and the stochastic volatility models, of which no real evidence could be found in literature, are also included in this dissertation.