Invloede van buite Transvaal op enkele aspekte van sy primêre skoolstelsel, 1910–1960 : 'n evaluering
Els, Gysbertus van Rooyen
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This study comprises an investigation into and evaluation of influences from without on a few aspects of the Transvaal primary school system for the period 1910-1960. The south African educational system for Whites is traditionally based on Prostestant Christian foundations to which, with the passage of time, various "foreign" influences have become attached. As a continuous phenomenon, development and renewal in education forces the teacher to acquaint himself with these aspects and to investigate, consider and evaluate the events in education in the recent and even not so recent past. In our rapidly developing western civilization, where developments, discoveries, techniques, methods and trends play such an important role, it is to be expected that education will be affected thereby. By exposing these external influences in the Transvaal primary educational system it may be possible to make a positive contribution which will enable the officiating teacher to be better equipped for his task; a person who is endowed with a broader perspective concerning educational matters, after all, better able to contribute effectively to the educational task. For this study the historical research method was employed. Historic-educational data were investigated and elaborated upon. The following sources proved particularly useful: * Laws, regulations, ordinances and minutes. * Reports, conferences and discussions dealing with primary education. * The study of articles and magazines, brochures, pamphlets and newspapers. * Annual reports of the Transvaal Education Department, 1910-1960. * Various publications by local as well as foreign authors in order to obtain a sound perspective of the specific field of study. * An orientation with philosophies and schools of thought such as Humanism, Rationalism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Calvinism as various aspects of this study are affected directly or by implication by these philosophies. The data obtained from these sources were evaluated, arranged meaningfully, and discribed as objectively as possible. In this treatise it is shown how the Afrikanders, having been vanquished during the Anglo Boer War (1899-1902), were deprived of their traditional C.N.O. The "Boer" or Afrikander child was forced to receive his education in accordance with the British educational system. Aiming to include the Afrikander in the mighty British Empire, the victorious British started with the schools. The Afrikanders were purposefully denationalised in order to achieve this imperialistic aim. A few aspects in the primary school system were, therefore subjected to an intensive examination to ascertain the qualitative as well as quantitative degree of influence, not only of British origin but also that of other western nations which influenced the Transvaal primary educational system. Chapter 2 concerns itself mainly with the central control in the form of the Transvaal Education Department of which the Director of Education is the senior member. Local controlling bodies such as school boards and school committees are also investigated. Education administration is the topic of chapter 3. The system-of inspection, the abolition of external or public examinations, the introduction of cumulative report cards and centralization are probed. Chapter 4 deals with the curriculum of the Transvaal primary school system, with specific reference to outside influence regarding the following five school subjects: Physical Training, Religious instruction, Art, Social Studies and Agricultural Studies. Audio-visual aids and the importance of these modern aids in education, especially since the second quarter of the 20th century are under discussion in chapter 5. Some of these educational aids have also been introduced into the Transvaal school, i.e. radio and audio-visual apparatus and their influence has been indicated. Chapter 6 is concerned with the outside influences on such matters as punishment and discipline in the Transvaal primary school and chapter 7 comprises a short resume of the entire study. A factor which contributed largely to South Africa becoming a unique market for an endless stream of American and English publications on Psychology, Social Sciences and especially Pedagogies is the fact that language here presented no communication problem. Both America and England make use of English which is one of South Africa's official languages. This has resulted in our Pedagogies, together with its related subjects, having an English-American orientation. It is clear that the “C.N.O” dating back to the Z.A.R., has been superseded by a so called modern form of education, especially from the pragmatic United States of America. By 1960 there was as yet, neither in South Africa in general nor in the Transvaal in particular, any truly unique education system of its own, in primary schools. Developments in education since 1910 indicate a continual implication of a patchwork of foreign systems, which are strange and foreign to the. national spirit of the people. Although the benefits attached to these systems should not be negated, the need was, nevertheless, very strongly felt for the implementation of a national education system as outside influences can, generally speaking, never completely satisfy this need.
- Education