Die samestelling van 'n toetsreeks in atletiek vir die hoërskooldogter van 13 tot 18 jaar
De Klerk, Rosalie Irene
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The problem and purpose of this research - At present there is no organized system of evaluating physical education in South African schools. The syllabus for physical education for girls (std. 6 - std. 10) consists of four main sections: Gymnastics, Dance, Water activities and Games. Track-and-field is a subsection of Games. The purpose of this research is to compose a short test battery in track-and-field to determine the track-and-field ability of girls in the high school (12- 18 years). In order to award points to the girl for her performance in both the items which were included in the test battery and the items which were not included, achievement scales were drawn up for every age group in all the items. By doing this, it was possible to determine the difference in performance between the different age groups, with respect to all the items. Method of research - Data were collected of 2349 girls in the age groups 12 - 18 years from schools all over the Republic of South Africa. The girls were tested by their physical education teacher during physical education periods in the following items high jump, long jump, 50 meter, 100 meter, 150 meter, 200 meter, 400 meter, 800 meter, 1500 meter, 1000 meter race walking, 70 meter hurdles, 75 meter hurdles, 80 meter hurdles, javelin throwing, discus throwing, cricketball throwing, shotput (4 kg.) and shotput (2,72 kg.). Achievement scales were drawn up in all the events for each age group by using the Hull scale. To determine the relationship between every item and the fixed criterion which consists of high jump, long jump, 100 meter, 200 meter, 400 meter, 800 meter, 1500 meter, 80 meter hurdles, cricket ball throwing, shotput (4 kg.), discus throwinq and javelin throwing the correlation coefficient was calculated. This applied only to the age groups 13 - 18 years. Several test batteries with different combinations were drawn up, while taking the following into consideration: a. No more than 5 items were included in a test battery. b. The items included in the test batteries must as far possible have had a high correlation with the criterion. Correlation between items chosen had to be low. c. It was attempted to cover a wide program by including the basic track-and-field skills: running, jumping and throwing; as well as the basic fitness components: speed, power, endurance and co-ordination. The multiple correlation coefficient of each test battery was calculated with respect to the criterion. The test battery with the highest multiple correlation coefficient was considered to be the most suitable test battery to determine the track-and-field ability of the high school girl. Conclusions - 1. To determine the track-and-field ability of the high school girl, as part of an evaluating system in physical education, the most efficient test battery will consist of the following items: high jump, 100 meter, 800 meter, cricket ball throwing, discus throwing. 2. The second best test battery will consist of: high jump, 200 meter, 800 meter, cricket ball throwing, discus throwing. 3. The third best test battery will consist of: high jump or long jump, 200 meter, 800 meter, cricket ball throwing, shotput. 4. It is preferable to give the girl a choice. Therefore the final test battery will be as follow: high jump or long jump, 100 meter or 200 meter, 800 meter, cricket ball throwing, discus throwing or shotput. (In case long jump is chosen, it must be in combination with the 200 meter). 5. In case a test battery consisting only of 4 items is preferred, the best combination will be: long jump, 200 meter, 800 meter, cricket ball throwing. 6. There was an increase in performance as age increased in the case of high jump, discus throwing, javelin throwing, cricket ball throwing and shotput. 7. The 13 year old girls obtained the best average in the following items: 100 meter, 200 meter, 400 meter, 800 meter, 1500 meter, 1000 meter race walking, 70 meter hurdles, 75 meter hurdles, 80 meter hurdles. 8. The 14 year old girls obtained the best average in the following items: 50 meter, 100 meter, 150 meter. 9. The 15 year old girls obtained the best average in the following items: long jump, 50 meter, 100 meter. 10. The performance of the 12 year old girl was noticeably weaker than those of the other age groups, especially in comparison to the 13 year old girl. This did not apply to the longer distance races. 11. The speed of the white South African girl decreases as soon as she reaches the age of 15 years. 12. The white South African girl performs best in endurance running at the age of 13 years, after which age there is a decrease in performance. 13. If cricket ball throwing, shotput, discus throwing and javelin throwing are accepted as coordination items, co-ordination increases as the age of the girl increases (12 - 18 years). 14. Length and weight can influence the performance of the girl in high school in the following items: sprints, middle distance running, discus throwing, shotput, javelin throwing, cricket ball throwing.
- Education